Electroacoustic Music for Violin after WWII

ComposerDatesNationalityTitleDurationYearEquipmentComments / Coordination / Equipment Web
Bodin, Lars-GunnarN/ASwedenN/AN/AN/Ahttp://www.semicolon.se
Oakes, Rodney Harlandb. 1937USAHypochermaN/AN/A
Patatich, Ivan1922-1993HungaryAnalisiN/AN/A
Van Thienen, Marcel1922-1998FranceDe ProfindisN/A1957
Badings, Henk1907-1987NetherlandsCapriccio 7’1959Violin and two sound trackshttp://www.badings.nl
Luening, Otto1900-1996GermanyGargoyles9’1960Violin and synthesized soundLuening's 'Tape Music', including A Poem in Cycles & Bells , Gargoyles for Violin & Synthesized Sound , and Sounds of New Music demonstrated the early potential of synthesizers and special editing techniques for electronic music.http://www.musicianguide.com/biographies/1608003277/Otto-Luening.html
Luening, Otto1900-1996GermanyA Day in the Country: Duo Concertante8’1961Violin and tapeLuening's 'Tape Music', including A Poem in Cycles & Bells , Gargoyles for Violin & Synthesized Sound , and Sounds of New Music demonstrated the early potential of synthesizers and special editing techniques for electronic music.http://www.musicianguide.com/biographies/1608003277/Otto-Luening.html
Maxfield, Richard1927-1969USAPerspectivesN/A1960Violin and tapehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Maxfield
Maxfield, Richard1927-1969USAPerspectives II9’1961La Monte Young, violin, unspecified string and tapehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Maxfield
Fade, Elsa Marie1924-2016DenmarkAfsnit I, II, IIIN/A1961Violin and 11 electro-acoustic percussion instruments with 3 speaker groups.There are twelve voices in the composition. The first eleven are for percussion, recorded by Paul Ritz Andersen, and then electro-acoustic processed. The violin is clean. It is the twelfth voice. Pitches, durations and dynamics are also serial. The work's idea is to portray the human perception of time. The elven percussion instruments make up the time factor, the violin symbolizes man. In Section I, all durations long and dynamics very weak, the human perception of those two minutes is 2 hours. Section II portrays the opposite: Ultra-short durations and strong momentum, that is, human perception of two hours as two minutes. Section III is the "normal" concept of time, alternating between fast, slow and moderate. The music was later used as the basis for a ballet "Variations" by Nini Theilade. http://www.kvinfo.dk/side/171/bio/906/
Erlih, Devy1928-2012FranceViolstriesN/A1963Violin and tapehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devy_Erlih
Norholm, Ibb. 1931DenmarkDirection: InconnueN/A1964Violin and tapeIb experimented with the use of non-musical instruments such as mechanic toys.http://www.iscm.org/catalogue/composers/nørholm-ib-m-denmark
Parmegiani, Bernard1927-2013FranceViolostries3’1964Violin and tapehttp://www.parmegiani.fr
Randall, James1929-2014USALyric Variations20’1965Violin and computerAt Princeton, he became a pioneer in electronic music, working from the very early days of punch cards. Music from that time includes Lyric Variations for Violin and Computer , Quartets in Pairs , and Quartersines .https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_K._Randall
Stockhausen, Karlheinz1928-2007GermanySolo10-19’1965Melodic instrument and variable electronic tape feedback loopFeedback (Rückkopplung) in this case refers to tape delay, through which music played by the soloist is made to return after periods of time specified in six different form plans, one of which is to be chosen for any performance. The performer is given six pages of conventionally notated material constituting the "content" of the work, and selects material according to certain criteria, playing it into a stereo pair of microphones that feed into the tape-loop system. Three assistants choose one or both recording channels, the degree of feedback, and the level of sound to be emitted from the speakers. This results in a regular though transformed periodic recurrence of the initial material, while the soloist adds new material over it. The system of the feedback plan therefore is the piece, since any musical relationships present on the sheets of music are destroyed by the atomisation and reorganisation created by this system.http://www.karlheinzstockhausen.org
Stockhausen, Karlheinz1928-2007GermanyOrchester-Finalisten Op. 29146’ or 92’1995Violin and electronic musicThe second scene of WEDNESDAY from LIGHT. The composition ORCHESTRA FINALISTS presents orchestra musicians as finalists, in the way musicians publicly perform during music competitions. Whereas in the normal orchestral repertoire the musicians play together and only seldom have short solos, the present score for ORCHESTRA FINALISTS consists of soli with a few tutti chords and a tutti finale. In a quasi concert performance, the soli should be played in two rounds with 13 plus 12 (or 11) musicians, each time by different instrumentalists. This enables the listeners to compare and to become more familiar with the soli. The percussionist (and possibly the hom player) is the same in both rounds. All soli are to be played from memory. These days, many orchestral musicians aspire to play soloistically without risking a career as soloist. I am therefore hoping that orchestra musicians will also be interested in playing the roles of the ORCHESTRA FINALISTS, through which they demonstrate their musicality and skill by a new style of interpretation: playing from memory, moving in an individual way and projecting their personal aura. The score is dedicated to all orchestra finalists.http://www.karlheinzstockhausen.org
Sahl, MichaelN/AUSAA Mitzvah for the Dead1966Violin and electronicshttp://www.allmusic.com/artist/michael-sahl-mn0000399342
Reich, Steveb.1936USAViolin Phase15’1967Violin and tapeViolin Phase is an example of Reich's phasing technique, previously used in It's Gonna Rain, Come Out, Reed Phase, and Piano Phase, in which the music itself is created not by the instruments but by interactions of temporal variations on an original melody. Music of this kind is generally referred to as process music. It is the third in a series of instrumental compositions (together with Reed Phase and Piano Phase) in which Reich explored the possibility of phasing in music for a live player with tape accompaniment or, in the case of Piano Phase, for just two players. In Violin Phase, two violins are recorded and played back, together at first. They are then made to go slowly out of sync by adding silence to one of the tapes. A new melody is formed by the interaction of the two out of sync instruments and is then accented by a third violin. This process is repeated with variations throughout the rest of the piece.http://www.stevereich.com
Kupkovic, Ladislav1936-2016SloveniaPraparierter Text 1N/A1968Violin and magnetic tape Adapted from the second movement of Brahms' Symphony No. 1.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladislav_Kupkovič
Snow, Mary HelenN/AUSAMandoraN/A1968Violin and tape
Saperstein, Davidb. 1948USACompositionN/A1968Violin and tapehttp://www.calabresebrothersmusic.com/composers_in_our_catalog/david_saperstein
Sydeman, Williamb. 1928USAProjection IN/A1969Violin and electronicshttp://www.williamjaysydeman.com
Bottje, Willb. 1925USAConcert PieceN/A1969Violin and tapehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Will_Gay_Bottje
Gilbert, Anthonyb. 1934UKTreatment of Silence11’1969Violin and tapeIn listening to this work, one should imagine that one is hearing five quite separate, interlocking pieces simultaneously. Each one makes a succession of quite distinct, developing statements separated by measured silences like windows, large enough to allow the other four pieces to show through. Each type of statement appears to create its own kind of ensuing silence: in one case, a “charged” silence of anticipation, for instance; in another case a “passive”, expected silence, and so on. However, as has frequently been observed, there is in practical terms no such thing as absolute silence, so my own has been further treated by the creation, on tape, of a continuous quiet pulse like a heartbeat or a drum, which in its own way also develops as the work unfolds, and acts as a background for all the other events to play themselves out against. The result is a sort of loosely-fitting mosaic of virtuoso violin music, which knits itself together finally into a climax in which some statements even overlap and then fade away.http://www.anthonygilbert.net
Glass, Philipb. 1937USAStrung Out13’1969Amplified violinLike Music in Contrary Motion, the score for Strung Out is visually stimulating due to the symmetry of the notational progression. Strung Out is a more simple piece of music and, consequently, more easy to deconstruct. Both pieces are remarkable in that they are written in the key of C major (no sharps or flats) and contain no accidentals. Therefore, as is typical with minimalist music, the content closely resembles the form, which is why this piece is so visually demonstrative. As is common in Glass' music, he focuses his themes around simple and close intervals, and the challenge is to find within the seemingly simple framework where the pattern changes or progresses. Strung Out is based on seconds and thirds (with a very occasional fourth), and the central interval is the tied EG that is repeated throughout the piece. This interval frequently serves as the pivot between symmetrical phrases. The first two stanzas of the composition read as follows: EGEDCEGEGDCEGCEDCDEDCDEGCEDEGEDCEGCEGEGEGCED. Within those stanzas, patterns such as the following occur (capitalization refers to groupings): "gEdcEG-EGdcEg." The hyphen in this pattern shows the point of symmetry around which the grouping "gEdcEG" is mirrored. Another pattern, "EDCD-EDCD," although not symmetrical in a mirrored form, does demonstrate a certain replication in pattern that reflects upon the symmetry of the overall form. Although we cannot offer a sound sample of this piece, one would expect that the sounds reflect the patterns, creating a similar effect for the listener as the score creates for the visual spectator. Given the simplicity of the piece, it is easy to play on the piano or violin, and any adventurous readers can discover the sound that matches the image.www.philipglass.com
Peck, Russell1945-2009USATime BeingN/A1969Violin solo trio: violin with tape and optional mime/dancehttp://www.russellpeck.com
Eisma, Willb. 1929IndonesiaStripped of Outer String Quotes13’1970Violin and four-track tapehttp://weisma.home.xs4all.nl/acquaintance.html
Grimes, Davidb. 1948USAIncrescents5’1970Violin and electronic instruemntshttp://davidgrimesmusic.com
Mimaroğlu, İlhan1926-2012TurkeyMusic Plus One11’1970Violin and tapeBy Music, only the tape part is meant--that which has already been conceived and concretized in terms of sound--to which the indefinite and abstract One is added. The latter is represented by what is written on paper. Although commonly referred to as music, it is not music unless translated into sound (by a violinist). In this recorded realization, One has become music, too. Hence the title properly applies to all the other possible realizations which shouldn't significantly differ from the one heard on this record as the system of notation I used is thoroughly conventional.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/İlhan_Mimaroğlu
Mimaroğlu, İlhan1926-2012TurkeyMusic Plus One11’1970Violin and tapeThe style, as well, is "conventional," at least in the sense that it reflects my response to a certain brand of conventional violin writing. Alongside my inclination to use the past as the fantasy of the present (not to speak of the present which may often be perceived as its own fiendish fantasy), the fact that the piece was composed to be performed first by a virtuoso of Gabriel Banat's stature also determined the character of the violin part.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/İlhan_Mimaroğlu
Mimaroğlu, İlhan1926-2012TurkeyMusic Plus One11’1970Violin and tapeAs to the meaning of this music, One and all, no further word is needed than a reference to the context of the program into which it is placed. That, of course, goes for everything else that's part of this context.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/İlhan_Mimaroğlu
Norgard, Perb. 1932DenmarkTime is a River without Banks (Chagall says...)16’1970Walking violinist, mirror, and electronics (2 players, 2 or 4 speakers and wireless microphones).https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Per_Nørgård
Henze, Hans Werner1926-2012GermanyViolin Concerto no. 234’1971Violin, tape and 33 payersHans Werner Henze’s First Violin Concerto was one of his earliest published works, composed in 1947 when he was attempting to reconcile the two prevailing musical doctrines of the time, neoclassicism and 12-note technique, with his own lyrical inclinations. By the time he produced its successor, in 1971, his music had undergone several radical shifts of emphasis, and the Second Violin Concerto is one of the products of the period when he was exploring the boundaries of concert music and theatre, regularly adding extra-musical layers to his scores (often, though not always, politically engaged ones) and composing in a deliberately expressionist style.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Werner_Henze
Henze, Hans Werner1926-2012GermanyViolin Concerto no. 234’1971Violin, tape and 33 payersIn the concerto there are several of those extra layers. Not only does the soloist arrive on stage for the performance dressed like the semi-fictional 18th-century teller of tall tales Baron Munchausen, and acts out a scena with the orchestra, but also he delivers a theorem by the mathematician and philosopher Kurt Gödel while playing the cadenza that follows the opening orchestral presentation. Later in the work, an on-stage narrator interjects with lines from Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s poem Hommage à Gödel, while a pre-recorded tape (clarified in this performance) enriches the textures further.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Werner_Henze
Henze, Hans Werner1926-2012GermanyViolin Concerto no. 234’1971Violin, tape and 33 payersIt’s a rich, indulgent mix, typical of Henze’s music of this period, and not everything hangs together. But that isn’t the point. In his music of the late 1960s and early 70s Henze was always trying out ideas, testing himself and what he could express through his music, and pushing the limits of what his audience would accept.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Werner_Henze
White, Garyb. 1937USACentrumN/A1971Violin and tapehttp://trnmusic.com/categories/Composers/White,-Gary-C./
Maiguashca, Mesiasb. 1938EcuadorEjercicios11’1972Violin and synthesizer"The creative individual, through the struggle with his medium, balancing experience and pleasure, might be able to surpass the pain and anguish that accompanies the struggle to express himself."http://www.maiguashca.de/index.php/es/
Maiguashca, Mesiasb. 1938EcuadorEjercicios11’1972Violin and synthesizerHenry Millerhttp://www.maiguashca.de/index.php/es/
Maiguashca, Mesiasb. 1938EcuadorEjercicios11’1972Violin and synthesizerThe voice of the interpreter consists of a series of isolated events that are nonetheless homogeneous with each other. The interpreter must progress from one event to the next improvising through interpolation. This creates a texture characterized by continuity. The synthesizer (AKS, a "classic" between analog synthesizers) transforms the sound of the solohttp://www.maiguashca.de/index.php/es/
Maiguashca, Mesiasb. 1938EcuadorEjercicios11’1972Violin and synthesizer1. in a manner such that the transformation is conducted as an accompaniment, as ornament;http://www.maiguashca.de/index.php/es/
Maiguashca, Mesiasb. 1938EcuadorEjercicios11’1972Violin and synthesizer2. so that the transformation and original sound have equal importance;http://www.maiguashca.de/index.php/es/
Maiguashca, Mesiasb. 1938EcuadorEjercicios11’1972Violin and synthesizer3. so that the transformation is clearly more important than the originalhttp://www.maiguashca.de/index.php/es/
Ehle, Robertb. 1939USAMordorisundN/A1972Violin and prepared violinhttp://www.jomarpress.com/ehle/ehle.html
Wuorinen, Charlesb. 1938USAConcerto 21’1972Amplified violin and orchestrahttp://www.charleswuorinen.com
Mclean, Bartonb. 1938USADimensions I15’1973Violin and tapeAll my "Dimensions" series for single instrument and tape feature the instrument prominently in the tape part as well. Toward the end, some vintage electronic sounds from the Arp 2600 are heardhttp://www.fairpoint.net/~rainfor1/McLean_MAXMSP/Main_page.html
Gentilucci, Armando1939-1989ItalyCome qual cosa palpita nel fondoN/A1973Violin and tapeDespite his clear rejection of aleatoric music, he adopted in the second half of the sixties some random principles in works like Figurations (1966, for flute and piano), Phonomimésis (1969, for chamber orchestra), Figure (1967, for 32 performers), built as a succession of clearly differentiated sound fields, where some random directions are employed to determine pitch-heights.https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armando_Gentilucci
Gentilucci, Armando1939-1989ItalyCome qual cosa palpita nel fondoN/A1973Violin and tapeIn the early seventies the evolution of his musical language followed two main paths: a constant research on timbre and harmonic and an attempt to characterize every musical development as a sign of the maximum civil and intellectual commitment.https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armando_Gentilucci
Gentilucci, Armando1939-1989ItalyCome qual cosa palpita nel fondoN/A1973Violin and tapeStudies for a "Dies irae", for orchestra of 1972, show a construction for the masses that encompasses the example of Ives, heterogeneous materials, including citations of partisan songs and the US anthem. The voice of a Palestinian militant, along with various vocal effects, the use of dots to signal something throbs in the background (1973, for violin and tape), was Gentilucci’s first experiment with electronic music.https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armando_Gentilucci
Glasow, Glen1924-2002USARakkaN/A1973Violin and four-channel tapehttp://www.csueastbay.edu/class/departments/music/news-events/glenn-glasow-life.html
Kupferman, Meyer1926-2003USAAngel Footprints18’1973Violin and tapehttp://www.meyerkupferman.com/html/works.php
Kupferman, Meyer1926-2003USAMeditation at the end N/A1976Violin and tapehttp://www.meyerkupferman.com/html/works.php
Santoro, Claudio1919-1989BrasilMutationen IV8’1971Violin and tapehttp://www.claudiosantoro.art.br/Santoro/
Santoro, Claudio1919-1989BrasilMutationen V8’1972Violin and tapehttp://www.claudiosantoro.art.br/Santoro/
Santoro, Claudio1919-1989BrasilMutationen VI8’1972Violin and tapehttp://www.claudiosantoro.art.br/Santoro/
Vega, Aurelio de lab. 1925CubaSegments15’1973Violin and tapehttp://www.ecured.cu/Aurelio_de_la_Vega_Saavedra
Csapo, Gyula1955HungaryAz Utolso Tekercs (Krapp's Last Tape)26’1974For violinist-actor and 2 tape recorders.Composed in 1975 for violin, tape recorder, sine tone generator, and spotlights, Gyula Csapó’s “Krapp’s Last Tape” depends on the possibility that sound may function as an image. By this I mean not only that sound may evoke impressions of visible phenomena – as a recording of a train whistle may bring us to a “mental image” of a train – but also that sonic compositions may assume characteristics normally attributed to images. If we take “image” to mean a visual rendering of some kind, such characteristics may include apparent consistency over time, as in a still image, or the apparent layering of flat “planes,” as in the foreground and background of a picture. However, an “image” may also be a “mental image,” in which case it is one’s understanding or memory of some phenomenon or concept. The “image” of a phenomenon could therefore refer to the popular understanding of the phenomenon. One of Csapó’s intentions in “Krapp’s Last Tape” is to engage the “image” of classical music by foregrounding the constraining, stifling aspects of concert etiquette.
Csapo, Gyula1955HungaryAz Utolso Tekercs (Krapp's Last Tape)26’1974For violinist-actor and 2 tape recorders.“Krapp’s” also invokes other kinds of images. In a manner similar to that described above, one may also speak of one’s “self-image”: one’s understanding of oneself, which may not always coincide with that which one conveys to others. In a similar sense, philosophers often define “images” as “simulacra”: imitations or representations of reality, which are nonetheless unreal, non-actual (Plato, Zizek, Baudelaire). In many instances, what our eyes seem to perceive are in fact representations, hence to varying degrees distortions of the truth. I will argue that in “Krapp’s Last Tape,” the sounds produced by the tape recorder and sine tone generator in fact represent the “self-image” of the violinist on stage – the truth of his thoughts. By contrast, what he plays “live” before our eyes is but a simulacrum of his true feelings. Thus Csapó effectively invokes the philosophical mind/body problem: is the mind separate from the body, and to what extent (Descartes)? Does the “mind’s eye” even exist? Are “mental images” actually possible? (Wittgenstein argues in the negative.) Overall it is my contention that Csapó’s “Krapp’s Last Tape” calls to our attention the various meanings of “image,” explores the image as a concept and the implications thereof. This paper draws on the work of Michel Chion, suggesting that whether we experience “Krapp’s” as a performance or via an audio recording, we must see/hear the piece, in the sense of Chion’s “audio-vision.” I further suggest that in “Krapp’s” attempt to spatialize time, Csapó was influenced by his dissertation advisor, Morton Feldman. I draw on those essays of Feldman’s in which he insists that music ought to deal with time rather than “timing,” that it ought to approach time as an image.
Ashley, Robertb. 1930USAHow can I tell the difference?23’1974Violin and electronic tapeIn Version One of "How Can I Tell the Difference?" the composer tried to create the drama of the recording of the reverberation and the motorcyclist, using the String Quartet as an 'orchestra', in the way intended to be used in the opera. In Version Two of "How Can I Tell the Difference?" a solo string player using the same playing technique as in the "String Quartet" opens and closes the sound 'gates' to electronic reverberations and prerecorded sounds running continuously with the performance. http://www.robertashley.org
Vossenaar, RogerN/ABelgiumNiksN/A1974Violin and tapehttp://www.bloggen.be/rogervossenaar/
Custer, Arthur1923-1998USAFound Project No. 8N/A1975N/Ahttp://composers.com/arthur-custer
Ammann, Benno1904-1986SwitzerlandEsveha Version I19’1976Violin and 4-track magnetic tapehttps://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benno_Ammann
Ammann, Benno1904-1986SwitzerlandEsveha Version II18’1976Violin and 4-track magnetic tapehttps://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benno_Ammann
Vercoe, Barryb. 1937New ZealandSynapse5’1976Viola (or violin) and computerBarry Vercoe's work "Synapse" treated both musician and computer synthesized accompaniment as equally salient musical entities. At the time the piece was written, technological limitations placed the burden of synchronization during performance on the musician. Now, modern digital processing techniques offer new, creative possibilities, and have enabled composers to incorporate real-time synchronization and genuine computer interaction into their compositions. In early 1999, Professor Vercoe revisited "Synapse" to explore the interactive potential of this important work.http://web.media.mit.edu/~bv/
Fongaard, Bjorn1919-1980NorwayConcerto Op. 131N/A1976Violin and Tapehttp://www.mic.no/mic.nsf/doc/art2002101214595343985351
Babbitt, Milton1916-2011USAConcerti19’1977Violin, orchestra and synthesized soundhttp://www.juilliard.edu/journal/1512/lost-concertos-journey
Osbome, Nigelb. 1948EnglandMusica da CameraN/A1977Violin, tape-delay, audienceOsborne’s compositional development has involved working through the modernism, which formed his artistic background. In the 1970s, he found a useful analogue to musical processes in structuralist thought. His interpretation of structuralism led to an exploration of universal ‘deep’ musical structures which he sees as common to different cultureshttps://web.archive.org/web/20100327153308/http://www.music.ed.ac.uk:80/staff/profile/ProfileNigelOsborne.html
Anderson, Laurieb. 1947USADuets on IceInd.1977Violin and tapeAnderson’s early relationship to technology was more about play and experimentation than critique. Works such as Duets on Ice and Duet for Door Jamb and Violin demonstrate both Anderson’s clever inventiveness and wit.http://www.laurieanderson.com
Anderson, Laurieb. 1948USADuet for Door JambInd.1977Violin and tapeIn 1975, Anderson performed Duets on Ice throughout New York City and Genoa, Italy. During this piece, she wore ice skates embedded in ice as she alternated between telling personal stories and “playing” a violin outfitted with a pre-recorded cassette tape loop featuring cowboy songs. She played until the ice melted.http://www.laurieanderson.com
Anderson, Laurieb. 1949USAIn Anderson’s Duet for Door Jamb and Violin (1976) she stood within a doorway and played her violin. She had rigged the door jamb with contact microphones and whenever her bow struck one of the mikes, the knock was amplified. Both of these early works include Anderson’s signature violin either augmented or used in an unusual, humorous way. The violin has remained a key component of Anderson’s performances throughout her career.http://www.laurieanderson.com
Anderson, Laurieb. 1950USAFor Electronic Dogs3’1984Violin and tapehttp://www.laurieanderson.com
Enriquez, Manuel1926-1994Mexico3 X BachN/A1970Violin and tapehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Enr%C3%ADquez
Enriquez, Manuel1926-1994MexicoConjuroN/A1977N/Ahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Enr%C3%ADquez
Freund, Donb. 1947USAUkrainian Fantasy17’1977Violin and tapeThe piece was written for Ukrainian-American violinist Adrian Bryttan, who requested a violin and piano piece employing Ukrainian folk melodies in a work similar to Ravel’s Tzigane. However, as I listened to this folk music, particularly in recordings of unadulterated folk performances, I became too intrigued by the actual sound quality of the music to be happy with a translation to piano. I convinced Adrian that what he really wanted was a piece, which used the actual sound of these recordings as a context for a violin fantasy. So the piece emerged as a work for violin with a collage “tape” of material assembled from a wealth of folk recordings. The main compositional enterprise was to design a form and a sound fabric, which would allow the violinist and the audience to revel in the high spirits, humor, nostalgia, frenzy, and lyric emotional power this music evokes.http://donfreund.com
Lievens, Walter1942-2016BelgiumPreludiumN/A1977Violin and tape
Lievens, Walter1942-2016BelgiumStereo 4- Track N/A1977Violin and tape
Morthenson, Janb. 1940SwedenTremor13’1977Violin and two-channel tape
Zbar, Michelb. 1942FranceContinuoN/A1977Violin and tape
Schnittke, Alfred1934-1998RussiaPraeludium: in Memoriam Dmitri Shostakovich 5’19782 Violins or violin and tapeMany of Alfred Schnittke's works deal with memory in some way, and more than a few seem to serve as memorials -- Shostakovich allegedly once called his symphonies "tombstones" for the private and public history of Russia, and Schnittke's music can be seen under a similar light, as tombstones for Russian history, but also for musical history as well.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Schnittke
Schnittke, Alfred1934-1999RussiaPraeludium: in Memoriam Dmitri Shostakovich 5’19793 Violins or violin and tapeThese uncanny qualities are each exhibited in Schnittke's 1975 Prelude in Memoriam Dmitri Shostakovich for solo violin and tape. Schnittke speaks about the work with a predictable mix of humility and irony. Upon being asked by friend and violinist Mark Lubotsky to write a piece for Lubotsky's last Moscow concert, Schnittke recalls, "I remembered that I had written my Canon in Memory of Stravinsky in one day, and so I decided to write a piece, just as quickly, in memory of Shostakovich. I managed to bring this off."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Schnittke
Schnittke, Alfred1934-2000RussiaPraeludium: in Memoriam Dmitri Shostakovich 5’19804 Violins or violin and tapeAnd yet, despite the Prelude's quick gestation period and modest five-minute length, it is a rich and complicated theatrical statement, densely furnished with an anagrammatic and gestural symbolism characteristic of Schnittke. The musical material arises from the development of Shostakovich's musical monogram, D/E flat/C/B (D-S-C-H in German notation), surely one of the most famous sound-signatures in Western music--Shostakovich himself used it consistently from his Tenth Symphony (1953) onwards.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Schnittke
Thome, Dianeb. 1942USATo Search the Spacious World14’1978Violin and tapehttp://faculty.washington.edu/dthome/
Goethals, Lucien1931-1996BelgiumTres Momentos Musicales15’1980Violin and electronic soundsThe violin and the electroacoustic part have a solo-accompaniment relationship. The electroacoustic part is mainly composed of non-pitched sounds, which function as blocks of sound background and provide the rhythmic foundation. Metallic punctuations provide cues for the solo violin. The piece has three movements. Dissonances of seconds, and their inversions as sevenths and ninths, contribute harmonic intensity to the first movement. The second movement has two alternating motifs. Sustained notes with quarter-tone pitch changes and sixteenth-note pizzicati create contrasts in timbre. The tape part is in rhythmic unison with the violin part. The last movement emphasizes tremolos and large intervallic shifts in the violin part over a low bell-like sound that gives rhythmic structure to the movement in the tape part.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucien_Goethals
Melby, Johnb.1941USAConcerto no. 115’1979Violin and computer-synthesized tapeThe Concerto No. 1 for Violin and Computer is the first of my thirteen concerti for instruments and computer and was composed in 1979. The work was selected as one of five finalist compositions in the First Annual Politis Competition and was given its premiere at the Politis Competition Concert at Boston University on may 10,1980, with violinist Victor Romanul. The Concerto has become one of my most widely played compositions; it was performed in 1983 in Carnegie Hall by Maryvonne Le Dizes, violinist with Pierre Boulez Ensemble Intercontemporain, who subsequently recorded it for New World Records.http://www.johnmelby.com
Melby, Johnb.1942USAConcerto no. 2N/A1986Violin and computerThe Concerto No. 2 for Violin and Computer was composed in 1986 for violinist Gregory Fulkerson, who gave its first performance on January 25,1987 at the Youth Performing Arts Center, Louisville, KY. Writing in the Louisville Times on the day following the performance, Staff Critic Andrew Adler said of the work:" There is nothing inherently progressive, unapproachable or cold-hearted about computer-generated music, despite its use of sounds produced by a machine. So it shouldn't be too surprising that John Melby's Concerto No. 2 for Violin and Computer-generated Tape - which received its premiere yesterday at the Youth Performing Arts Center in Louisville under the Singers of soloist. Gregory Fulkerson - is, a conservative, rhapsodic work. The concise, notated piece lets the violin do what it has always done best: make music that sings. Considering that many contemporary composers would rather make the violin croak, Melby must be congratulated. The composer, who teaches at the University of Illinois, favors a plush sonic landscape in which the violinist never fights the computer-derived music. "It's not an angry piece," Fulkerson said in his introduction. How very true. Absent were such contemporary clichés as striking the soundboard, playing steely dissonances or having the poor soloist hoot and holler at imprecise intervals. If an orchestra had been substituted for the tape, the relationship between violinist and accompaniment would hardly have been different. Fulkerson played with the stylish, technically assured manner that has marked his performances of 20thcentury repertoire. The former Louisvillian doesn't play new music merely as an obligation; he actually seems to enjoy it. Melby wrote the concerto for Fulkerson, with obvious appreciation for his soloist's expressive abilities. Anyone listening to the work's cadenza - especially in light of Fulkerson's fervent interpretation - would realize that romanticism can mesh comfortably with the electronic musical medium..."http://www.johnmelby.com
Casken, Johnb. 1949EnglandA Belle PavineN/A1980Violin and two-channel tapeThe title of this work alludes to the six-part consort piece, The Bells Pavan, or, to give its original title, The Belle Pavine, by the famous seventeenth century English composer John Jenkins. Jenkins’s piece was inspired by “the mingled evening Chimes of Oxford”, but the tolling, mesmeric quality of this piece is perhaps closer to the bells of passing ships and buoys of an imaginary seascape.http://www.nursing.hawaii.edu/john-casken.html
Casken, Johnb. 1950EnglandA Belle PavineN/A1981Violin and two-channel tapeCasken arrived at a simple structure in which sections of Bell music alternate with what the composer describes as Viols’ music. In the Bell music sections, the violin weaves an independent and increasingly phantasmagoric thread around the tape part. Whereas in the Viols’ sections, the violin plays as closely as possible with the sounds on the tape. These sections are the most consonant in the work and, in Casken’s imaginary seascape, have a siren-like quality. They are also reminiscent of consort music in which “the parts do hunt one and other, from concord to concord” (to borrow a phrase used to describe Jenkins’s consort music).http://www.nursing.hawaii.edu/john-casken.html
McMillan, Ann1923-1994USAStrings12’1980Violin and violin on tapehttp://composers.com/ann-mcmillan
Miroglio, Francis1924-2005FranceTriade12’19801 to 3 violins and tapehttps://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Miroglio
Goldstein, Malcolmb. 1936USAThe Seasons from Mount SummerN/A1981N/Ahttp://www.philmultic.com/artists/goldstein/
Goldstein, Malcolmb. 1936USATongues of my other’s Teaching20’1988Violin and tapehttp://www.philmultic.com/artists/goldstein/
Sousa, Filipe de1927-2006PortugalMonologoN/A1981Violin and tapehttp://www.mic.pt/cimcp/dispatcher?where=2&what=2&site=ic&type=2&show=2&pessoa_id=105&lang=PT
Szathm, Zsigmondb. 1939HungaryCon-Tact-VersationN/A1981
Olah, Tiberiu1927-2002RomaniaRime Pentru Revelarea Timpului11’1982Clarinet (or violin) and magnetic tapehttp://www.tiberiuolah.ro
Praesent, Gerhardb. 1957AustriaThe Long run8’1982Violin and tapeThe subtitle “improvisations” is related to the genesis of the work: both the tape and the instrumental part have been created using a certain amount of improvisation; the final instrumental part on the other hand is relatively fixed! The title '"The Long Run'' tried to lead the imagination of player and listeners in a certain direction, but in any case abstaining to be of a specific programmatic significance.http://www.alea.at/page103.html
Ungvary, TamasN/AHungaryMelos No. 310’1982Violin and tapehttp://mdw.academia.edu/TamasUngvary
Polansky, Larryb. 1954USAHere to stayN/A1983Violin and pitch-sensing microprocessorhttp://aum.dartmouth.edu/~larry/
Zupanc, VictorN/ACanadaPiece for Janos and TapeN/A1983Violin and tapehttp://www.victorzupanc.com
Ericsson, Hans-Olab. 1958SwedenMelody to the memory of a lost friend VI10’1984Violin and tapeEricsson's earlier works were closer in style to those of Klaus Huber or Luigi Nono, but this compositional approach became restrictive, and Ericsson went through a period of compositional silence in between 1984/85 and 1999. Ericsson's more recent music draws more freely from various styles, and concentrates, to a certain extent, on musical timbre and space, as well as referential ideas in music.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans-Ola_Ericsson
Ferreyra, Beatrizb. 1937ArgentinaTierra Quebrada15’1984Violin and magnetic tapeA lament dedicated to Latin America with fire and blood, mainly to the Argentina of that time. The score was written for a soloist with the participation of the violinist and composer Manuel Enriquez.http://www.beatrizferreyra.odavia.com
Fuller, Wesleyb. 1930USAConcertpiece14’1984Violin and electronicshttp://www.neuma-music.com/fuller_bio.htm
Niculescu, Stefan1927-2008RomaniaEchos II13’1984Violin and synthesizerNiculescu blends Spectralism with Romanian Folk Music and result is not just adventurous sonic textures, but - especially in "Echos" - also quite emotionally devastating.http://composers21.com/compdocs/niculess.htm
Reid, Sarahb. 1948USAMiniature5’1984Violin and tapeThe Miniature for violin and tape is one of six studies for soloist and digitally generated tape. The romantic solo line appears against an electronic background, which is based on motives characteristic of the individual electronic instruments. The electronic motives articulate the more flowing solo lines of the violin.
Van Eck, Hans--N/ANetherlandsFantasia II12’1984Violin and soundtracksOne of the compositional constraints of this piece was to derive some o f the textures from historical models. In the case of the Fantasia, this was the historical Baroque fantasia for keyboard. In these works a loose contrapuntal texture is used. In the composition this is realized in the tape with different layers of sound, which are split into long sounds and short punctuation while the violin part introduces a new line as well. The form is based on the rhetorical form that was popular in baroque music.http://www.free-scores.nl/Hans_van_Eck/eng/begin.html
Van Eck, Hans--N/ANetherlandsPoemi Eterni10-17’1995Violin and live-electronicsThe land in Holland is flat and full of small lakes, and with the predominantly cloudy weather this results in a typical horizon. The gray sky reflects in the water, which also takes on a gray color. Because of this, when one looks over the land over the water, it is not possible to see where the sky touches the water, as if the their is no end, no border. This inspired me to compose music on the edge of the world, music with no end, with no borders between sound and silence, with no worked-out forms.http://www.free-scores.nl/Hans_van_Eck/eng/begin.html
Van Eck, Hans--N/ANetherlandsPoemi Eterni10-17’1996Violin and live-electronicsPoemi Eterni has large areas of white between the staffs; these are for the performer to interpret how long to sound the silence. Performance using live-electronics is optional and can emphasize some aspects of the sound of the violin, or create a mirror world.http://www.free-scores.nl/Hans_van_Eck/eng/begin.html
Austin, Larryb. 1930USAQuadrants: Event/Complex Number ThreeN/A1985Violin and electronicsThe event/complexes of the Quadrants series function to explore the aural extensities of a given space with amplified/processed instruments or voices, combined with continuously changing sonorities heard on tape. Each event/complex may be performed singly (but always with the tape) or in combination with any or all of the others, simultaneously or successively. The taped electronic music--with the use of a specially designed pulse-wave frequency divider designed in 1972 by composer/inventor/percussionist Stanley Lunetta--explores the unique character of the first 256 partials of the sub-harmonic series. Providing its continuously changing, massive sonority, its timbral and structural qualities are integrated and synchronized with the pianist's and percussionist's amplified/delayed performance of a stream of 'super' harmonics in successively faster cycles, their pitches and rhythms derived mathematically from difference and summation tones created in combination with the electronic music's sub-harmonic partials, changing and advancing, partial by partial, every second of the piecehttp://cemi.music.unt.edu/larry_austin/LAWorks.htm
Austin, Larryb. 1931USAMontage: Theme and Variations13’1972Violin and computer music on tapeIn MONTAGE, intuitively composed themes and their computer-composed variations are heard in continuous succession, elaboration and combination. Themes I begin in succession, played alone by the violin and, as the tape first enters, in layered exposition. One by one, the themes become Variations I, then Variations II. Well into the piece, the violin presents Themes II, now with variations on tape. Variations III follows, ending the work as fragments of the final variations are played by the violin and heard on tape, both then dissolving to silence. The computer orchestra on tape was created with digital recording of wind and string instruments, re-synthesized into an ensemble of nine hybrid instruments, then scored and realized for digital synthesis on the Synclavier Digital Music System at the Center for Experimental Music and Intermedia, University of North Texas, Denton.Themes I and Themes II are intuitively composed melodic/harmonic sequences, serving as model data for consequent computer-determined variations. The composer's program creates synthetic variations by invoking an algorithm which 1) analyzes each sequence for pitch, interval and durational content; 2) calculates and sets a frequency table of discrete relations of the sequence's musical "character set"; and 3) creates a synthetic variant of the original sequence according to probabilities of recurrence. Azguimehttp://cemi.music.unt.edu/larry_austin/LAWorks.htm
Austin, Larryb. 1932USAMontage: Theme and Variations13’1973Violin and computer music on tapeIn MONTAGE, intuitively composed themes and their computer-composed variations are heard in continuous succession, elaboration and combination. Themes I begin in succession, played alone by the violin and, as the tape first enters, in layered exposition. One by one, the themes become Variations I, then Variations II. Well into the piece, the violin presents Themes II, now with variations on tape. Variations III follows, ending the work as fragments of the final variations are played by the violin and heard on tape, both then dissolving to silence. The computer orchestra on tape was created with digital recording of wind and string instruments, re-synthesized into an ensemble of nine hybrid instruments, then scored and realized for digital synthesis on the Synclavier Digital Music System at the Center for Experimental Music and Intermedia, University of North Texas, Denton.Themes I and Themes II are intuitively composed melodic/harmonic sequences, serving as model data for consequent computer-determined variations. The composer's program creates synthetic variations by invoking an algorithm which 1) analyzes each sequence for pitch, interval and durational content; 2) calculates and sets a frequency table of discrete relations of the sequence's musical "character set"; and 3) creates a synthetic variant of the original sequence according to probabilities of recurrence. Azguimehttp://cemi.music.unt.edu/larry_austin/LAWorks.htm
Austin, Larryb. 1933USARedux7’2007Violin and octophonic musicRedux (2007) re-visits and transforms my own violin music from the 'seventies, 'eighties, and 'nineties via both the computer music convolution process and the exemplary playing/recording of sequences from these pieces by violinist Patricia Strange, for whom the piece is composed. Redux is the fifth in a current series of pieces for virtuoso performers and octophonic computer music, which I have composed since 2001. But Redux will be different from the previous pieces, in that it "plays" on my own previously composed music, rather than varying other "previous" composers' musics, including Purcell, Moussorgsky, Mozart, and Debussy, to be specific. For the technically oriented, the soloist's sounds are amplified, processed, and diffused in the listening space, combined with the synchronized playback of convolved, octophonic computer music heard in montage: the listener is surrounded and immersed in the live and recorded sounds.http://cemi.music.unt.edu/larry_austin/LAWorks.htm
Burt, Warrenb. 1949USAAngela11’1985Violin and two-channel tapewww.warrenburt.com
Burt, Warrenb. 1950USAImprovisation with Daniel Stefanski15’1998Violin and electronicswww.warrenburt.com
Kim, Jin Hib. 1957South KoreaX49’1985Violin and prerecorded tapehttp://www.jinhikim.com
Martirano, Salvatore1927-1995USASampler: Everything Goes When the Whistle Blows12’1985Violin and the yahaSALmaMAC midi orchestraSampler is a great assortment of many sounds: like classical citations, synthetic sounds, electronic sampling and many others; all mixed with the electronic Zeta violin played by Dorothy Martirano.http://archives.library.illinois.edu/archon/?p=collections/controlcard&id=5829&q=martirano
Martirano, Salvatore1927-1996USAFantasyN/A1980Violin and tape recorderhttp://archives.library.illinois.edu/archon/?p=collections/controlcard&id=5829&q=martirano
Martirano, Salvatore1927-1997USAImprovesN/A1992N/Ahttp://archives.library.illinois.edu/archon/?p=collections/controlcard&id=5829&q=martirano
Nemescu, Octavianb. 1940RomaniaMetabyzantinirikonN/A1985Violin and tapehttp://nemescu.ro/en/index.php
Nordheim, Arne1931-2010NorwayPartita fur Paul5+4+4+1+41985Violin and tapehttp://www.arnenordheim.com
Jentzsch, Wilfriedb. 1941GermanyPaysages V15’1986Violin and tapehttp://wilfried-jentzsch.de
Lupone, Michelangelob. 1953ItalyCiclo Astrale Part Two121986Violin, tape and live electronicshttp://www.crm-music.it
Reller, PaulN/AUSAPretty BabyN/A1986Violin and tapehttp://music.arts.usf.edu/content/templates/?a=1205&z=238
Suesse, Ulrichb. 1944GermanyLuft8-11’1986Violin, two-channel tape and digital delayLuft (air) has many associations: the four elements, pollution, heaven-hell, hot, cold. . . and, in this piece, also the title of a musical movement: Air. These various components - hot, cold, pure, and polluted - are woven together into the first bar of Bach’s Air from the third orchestral suite in the middle of Luft and combine with the subsequent melody molecules till the snore-like rustle of the tuned down G-string is reached. In a live performance, the violin, attached to helium-filled balloons, ascends “towards heaven” during the last sound sequence.http://www.ulrichsuesse.com
Suesse, Ulrichb. 1945GermanyLuft8-11’1987Violin, two-channel tape and digital delayHot, cold, pure, polluted can be aurally transcribed as breathing, foot stamping, harmonics, scraping and grating. The live electronics (digital delay) have supportive, integrative, and autonomous functions. Viewed (and heard) this way, Luft is not a solo piece, although one violinplayer alone extends the traditional sound spectrum.http://www.ulrichsuesse.com
Barroso, Sergiob. 1946CubaEn Febrero mueren las Flores15’1987Violin and stereo tapehttp://www.composers21.com/compdocs/barrosos.htm
Boulanger, Richardb. 1956USAShadows: fo r Mathews4+31987Violin and radio batonhttp://www.csounds.com/boulanger/
Fridriksson, Rikhardurb. 1960IcelandAdagioN/A1987Violin and tapehttp://www.ismennt.is/not/rhf/
Thoma, Pierreb. 1949SwitzerlandJour-Nuit17’1987Violin and four-channel tapeThis Work is a tribute to India, a country of contrasts.http://www.musinfo.ch/index.php?content=maske_personen&pers_id=77
Davidovsky, Mariob. 1934ArgentinaSynchronisms No. 9 (1988)8’1988Violin and tapeSynchronisms No.9 belongs to a series of compositions for different combinations of instruments and electronic sounds dating back to the early 1960s. The work was completed in March after a hiatus of almost thirteen years from electronic music, during which the composer concentrated his efforts mainly in the area of instrumental chamber and symphonic music. During those thirteen years, the change in technology has been dramatic, with the computer having come of age as a musical resource. For a composer whose musical language and aesthetic approach was established within the context of one technology (classic analog electronics), facing the resource of the new technology presented interesting musical challenges. The work is scored for violin and computer tape. The violin part makes use of instrumental gestures reminiscent of Romantic/late Romantic heroic violinistic virtuosity even though the work’s rhythmic, harmonic, and melodic language are very much consistent with the composer’s own characteristic “contemporary language.”
Heyn, Volkerb. 1938GermanyBlah 25’1988Violin and 7 violins on tapeVolker Heyn is an "outsider", or perhaps an "unloved insider", an avant-gardist when it comes to experimental music, reaching beyond the trends of his generation of New Simplicity, Neo-Romanticism, New Complexity and so forth. In 1960 he left Europe to spend more than ten years in Australia where he joined a travelling theatre company, made ends meet by singing in nightclubs and working the night shift in a metal works.http://composers21.com/compdocs/heynv.htm
Heyn, Volkerb. 1939GermanyBlah 35’1989Violin and 7 violins on tapeHeyn's music is the mise en scène of an acoustic condition, his manifold reflections perpetually interlock and shatter, like a box of mirrors. It investigates a process, which in itself is inaccessible and cannot be reproduced on paper. Volker Heyn is not interested in sound per se - in the positive acoustic gesture - but, and especially, in the negative form, in the responding tone gesture, in the duplicating of friction and in discontinuous movements.http://composers21.com/compdocs/heynv.htm
Ivey, Jean Eichelberger1923-2010USAAriel in FlightN/A1988Violin and tapeGraphic notationhttp://pcm.peabody.jhu.edu/?page_id=1798
Kostitsyn, Evgenib. 1963RussiaVariations N/A1988Violin, bells and tape recorderhttp://www.kostitsyn.org/bio.php
Nono, Luigi1924-1990ItalyLa Lontananza Nostalgica Utopica Futura 47’ (i-vi)1988Violin and 8-track tapeFor this composition, Nono recorded hours of Gidon Kremer's violin playing and then started analysing his style and tone quality. He used the violin sounds to create an eight-channel tape of independent parts. In the studio the material was transformed electronically. Nono conceived the performance of La Lontananza Nostalgica Utopica Futura as a musical interaction between the soloist and the projection of the eight-channel tape. The score allows the violinist to choose the points at which he begins each section of the work, and to interpretate the length and tempi. The tape-projectionist is given equal freedom. Therefore every performance of La Lontananza Nostalgica Utopica Futura is different from the other. http://www.luiginono.it/it/
Ostrander, Lindab. 1937USAEncoutersN/A1988Violin and tapehttp://www.acmusic.org/members/ostrander-linda/
Strange, Allen1943-2008USASleeping Beauty21’ (i-vi)1988Amplified violin and computer-generated soundshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allen_Strange
Strange, Allen1943-2009USA21’ (i-vi)Amplified violin and computer-generated soundshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allen_Strange
Strange, Allen1943-2010USAShaman: Sisters o f Dreamtime21’ (i-vi)1994Amplified violin and computer-generated soundshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allen_Strange
Wingate, Markb. 1954USAThe Second AttentionN/A1988Violin and tapehttps://www.fsu.edu/faculty/faculty_article.html?mark.wingate
Wilson, Ianb. 1964IrelandBane, for violin and digital delay11’1989Violin and digital delayBane is an eerie, haunting piece for solo violin and digital delay which sounds like Paganini meeting Jimi Hendrixhttp://www.ianwilson.ie
Aikman, Jamesb. 1959USAFantasy7’1989Violin and electro-acoustic tapeThe piece is in 5 short sections ranging from lyric and expressive to boldly virtuosic. It owes a debt to the imaginative composer, John Eaton. I was one of his electronic music assistants and our ensemble united with the orchestra and singers for performances of his operas at Indiana University. (He, by the way, was the first to give a live performance of electronic music in the late 50's and early 60's in Rome while he was at the American Academy. He is currently a MacArthur Fellow and Professor of Music at the University of Chicago and has formed his own chamber opera company.) Anyway, I learned to greatly appreciate the beauty of his music, and specifically, his use of quartertones. I used quartertone inflections in the tape part, as everyone will hear. Snippets of the "live" violin music were sampled, digitally edited, and used to provide the bulk of the tape dialogue.http://www.aikmanmusic.com
Alsted, Birgitteb. 1942DenmarkVækstN/A1989Improvised violin and tapehttp://www.kvinfo.dk/side/597/bio/288/origin/170/
Alsted, Birgitteb. 1942DenmarkNatterdagN/A1992Improvised violin and tapehttp://www.kvinfo.dk/side/597/bio/288/origin/170/
Beyls, Peterb. 1950BelgiumStatements o f InnocenceN/A1989Infrared violin and live interactionOn one occasion in the 1980s Beyls turned away from compositions with tape, to make use of the new MIDI system. Before the advent of this system the composer had built his own equipment, developing various different hardware projects. With the arrival of MIDI, this was no longer necessary. In the 1980s as well, he gave many live performances, in locations all over the world. Statements of innocence (1989) is an example of such a live performance. For this event, he developed an infrared violin, the strings and bow of which were equipped with infra-red sensors. The infrared signals so produced were then electronically transformed into sounds. In this period, he also collaborated frequently with Karel Goeyvaerts, whom he helped with the editing of tapes, among other things. Beyls collaborated with Lucien Goethals to develop many synthesized sounds. The aim of Beyls’ music is to bring dynamics to life audio-visually in an imaginary world.http://www.peterbeyls.net
Biggs, Johnb. 1932USAInvention9’1989Violin and tapeThis score is the seventh in a series of “Inventions” written for various performers with tape accompaniment. It was written for violinist Tamsen Beseke of Monrovia, California. It opens with an electronic ambiance resembling the sound of a string orchestra tuning up before a concert. The aggressive and rhythmic opening section, and the entrance of the soloist who is given a number of energetic themes quickly interrupts this. The general mood is one of great excitement. This all gives way to the entrance of sustained voices (taken from the composer’s own voice), and a much more lyrical and expressive section, ending on an extended high trill by the soloist alone. The tape re-enters, and there is a brief recap of the opening, followed by an extended closing section, which has a rather sad and foreboding quality, all punctuated by eeriebells, leaving the soloist unaccompanied again, for the final, closing note.http://consortpress.com/Bio.Reviews.html
Burt, Warrenb. 1949USAAfter Cicero: the Deam of Scipio Africanus13’1989Amplified violin and tapeThis recording by Sherban Lupu marks the first performance of the work, which presents considerable difficulties to the performer. Chief of these is that the work, for retuned violin (retuned to be in tune with the microtonal electronics) is entirely played on harmonics, and very high harmonics at that. At this stratospheric height (often the player's left hand finger is on the string right next to the bow), control of tone is often hazardous at best, and all sorts of instabilities of tone production reveal themselves, regardless of the skill of the player. The electronics part is an implacable, constantly shifting drone, a great immobile block of sound. Against this the violin player has a part that is improvised within guidelines for pitch choice and kinds of phrasing given by the composer. Starting with single notes, and growing into a cadenza-like climax, the player explores the extreme upper pitch register of the violin using all the skill at one’s command, and also relishing the kinds of accidents that occur in this very imstable pitch region.http://www.warrenburt.com
Djordjevic, Mihajlob. 1950SerbiaThe Bridges of Prague15’1989Violin and tapeBridges o f Prague was composed during the composer’s school years at the Academy of Musical Arts in Prague, and it was done under supervision of Dr. Ctirad Kohou-tek. The composition uses a special technique of composition, “Projecting Musical Composition” (making rough and detailed graphic plans, and after that writing notes, etc.). The main theme, which is originally the main theme from Vltava (Smetana), is varied and repeated in a minimalist manner. Because the river goes thru Prague and there are many bridges done in different centuries, the counter theme is a variation of an old popular Czech folk song “On the Bridges of Prague ...”. Although it was originally written for solo violin and tape, it can also be played by two violins simultaneously, with the second one DSP modulated via microphone in the manner of live-electronics.http://en.fkm.naisbitt.edu.rs/prof-mihаjlo-minjа-l-djordjevicphd/
Hijleh, Markb. 1963USAOrpheus Corrupted5’1989Violin and tapeOrpheus Corrupted refers to the Greek mythological player of the lyre who charmed the demons in Hades with his music. However, in this version of the story, Orpheus's song becomes gradually more influenced by the demonic music, and eventually degrades into animalistic chaos.https://www.tkc.edu/faculty-and-staff/dr-mark-hijleh/
Jaffe, Davidb. 1955USAImpossible Animals9’1989Violin and Four-channel computer-generated voicesThe piece is a fanciful exploration of the boundary between human and animal expression and behavior, and between the realms of Nature and imagination. An antiphonal interplay is set up between the live ensemble and the synthesized voices, with the live instruments assuming the role of narrators of an abstract story, while the computer voices serve as actors, taking on improbable voices of unthinkable animals, and emote in an unknown language. The "story" is concerned with the lives of various imaginary animals seen when looking at the clouds, concluding with a description of a more familiar, though no less unlikely, beast ("...has an upright posture, has an opposable thumb...") with its own special vocalization.http://www.jaffe.com
Jaffe, Davidb. 1956USAImpossible Animals9’1990Violin and Four-channel computer-generated voicesOne of the more novel aspects of the tape part is a half-human/half-bird vocalise, a true hybrid between human and bird singing, as if the brain of a Winter Wren had been transplanted inside a wildly-gifted human singer. It was produced by beginning with a recording of a Winter Wren and analyzing it using the PARSHL program (Julius Smith). Frequency and amplitude trajectories were then extracted, segmented into individual "chirps" and tuned to the underlying harmonic background using specially-written software. The range was modified over time and the frequency axis was mapped onto an evolving set of vowels. Finally, the data was resynthesized, using human vocal synthesis (Xavier Rodet), into a new and greatly-transformed rendition of the original wren's song. The disconcerting combination of human and bird vocalizations is typical of the composer's interest in combining diverse seemingly-irreconcilable elements into a single musical context, manipulating the material in such a way as to bring out and resolve (or not) its inherent contrasts and contradictions. The result is a music that is both radically challenging on the one hand, and strangely reminiscent of past experience on the other. As in a cubist painting, a nose may be sideways, sticking out from the wrong side of the head, but its identification as a nose gives it an expressive power that an abstract shape would not have, while simultaneously setting up a rich network of associations with everyday life.http://www.jaffe.com
Mobberley, Jamesb. 1954USASoggiorno10’1989Violin and tapeSoggiorno (sojourn) was composed from September to December, 1989, during a one-yea fellowship at the American Academy in Rome. The lifestyle at the Academy provided virtually uninterrupted time for creative work (both luxury and a curse), with the result that the piece came to take on a life of its own; by December it was clearly exhibiting more signs of life than the composer. Though the piece is performed without interruption, it is in three distinct sections: the more lyrical soloistic first and third sections surround a rhythmic, energetic duo. The overall character of the work reflects, perhaps subconsciously, a kind of fatalism that is often associated with Europeans, whether “quite desperation” of the British, the “dolce vita” of the Italians, or, in the rapidly changing societies of eastern Europe, the hopes and fears which come wrapped tightly together in the same packages. On a more conscious level, the work reflects a peculiar fatalism of the composer’s own: the result of the clash between his naive expectations about a year of uninterrupted, unfettered creative work, and the stark reality of the uninterrupted toil which was necessary, and is always necessary it seems, to bring creative ideas to fruition.https://jamesmobberleymusic.com
Mobberley, Jamesb. 1955USASoggiorno10’1990Violin and tapeSoggiorno (sojourn) was composed from September to December, 1989, during a one-yea fellowship at the American Academy in Rome. The lifestyle at the Academy provided virtually uninterrupted time for creative work (both luxury and a curse), with the result that the piece came to take on a life of its own; by December it was clearly exhibiting more signs of life than the composer. Though the piece is performed without interruption, it is in three distinct sections: the more lyrical soloistic first and third sections surround a rhythmic, energetic duo. The overall character of the work reflects, perhaps subconsciously, a kind of fatalism that is often associated with Europeans, whether “quite desperation” of the British, the “dolce vita” of the Italians, or, in the rapidly changing societies of eastern Europe, the hopes and fears which come wrapped tightly together in the same packages. On a more conscious level, the work reflects a peculiar fatalism of the composer’s own: the result of the clash between his naive expectations about a year of uninterrupted, unfettered creative work, and the stark reality of the uninterrupted toil which was necessary, and is always necessary it seems, to bring creative ideas to fruition.https://jamesmobberleymusic.com
Mobberley, Jamesb. 1956USAIn Bocca Del Lupo8’1990Violin and electronic tapeIn Bocca Del Lupo was composed during a year’s fellowship at the American Academy in Rome, and is a companion piece to Soggiomo. The title means “Into the Mouth ofthe Wolf’, and is an Italian saying that is equivalent to “Break a Leg” in English, which is said in an encouraging way to actors and performers who are heading onto the stage. Indeed, the beginning of the piece bursts into life, much as an excited performer would take the stage, and the extensive use of tremolo recalls the combination of nerves and bravado that all of us face in a performance situation.https://jamesmobberleymusic.com
Waren, Jaakkob. 1970FinlandCrash, Mind & Delay5’1989Violin and live electronicshttp://jaakkowaren.com
Boudreau, Michelleb. 1956CanadaLe Passage du SeuilN/A1990Violin solo or violin with tapehttp://www3.sympatico.ca/michelleboudreau/
Itoh, Hiroyukib. 1963JapanXagna11’1990Violin and tapehttp://japanesecomposers.info/eng/modules/xpwiki/?ITOH%2C%20Hiroyuki
Kasemets, Udo1919-2014EstoniaHarmonice Mudi of Johannes Kepler12’1990Violin and fixed mediahttp://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/udo-kasemets-emc/
Lyon, Ericb. 1962USATyphoidN/A1990Violin and tapeTyphoid is one of Lyon’s earlier endeavors into what he calls “the New Sensitivity;” it is a musical Cuisinart combining 1960’s analog tape pieces, Bing Crosby, industrial music, and possibly one of the most gloriously stupid melodies Lyon has ever written.http://www.performingarts.vt.edu/faculty-staff/view/eric-lyon
Magnussen, Jonb. 1959USAFantasy5’1990Violin and synthesizershttp://www.jonmagnussen.com
Saudek, Vojtechb. 1951Czech RepublicForschungen eines HundesN/A1990Violin and electroacoustic equipmentshttps://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vojtěch_Saudek
Kimura, Marib. 1962JapanU (the Cormorant)1991Violin and Augmented Violinhttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1963JapanPédalez, Pédalez!2010Violin and Augmented Violinhttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1964JapanVIOMAX2010Violin and Augmented Violinhttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1965JapanClone Barcarolle2010Violin and interactive computerhttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1966JapanPhantom2009Violin and Augmented Violinhttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1967JapanVitessimo2009Violin and interactive computerhttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1968JapanTricot2007Violin and SS 5.1 signal processinghttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1969JapanPolytopia2004Violin and interactive computerhttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1970JapanDescarga Interactive2002Violin and interactive computer systemhttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1971Japan6 Caprices1997Violin and interactive computer systemhttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1972JapanCarrefour1997Violin, tape, and interactive computerhttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1973JapanECO III for Zeta MIDI1993Violin and real-time signal processinghttp://www.marikimura.com
Kimura, Marib. 1974JapanECO1992Violin and live electronicshttp://www.marikimura.com
Winkler, Peterb. 1943USAWaterborne16’1991Violin and tapeWaterborne for Violin solo and tape (1991) Imagine the violin swimming through electronic sounds like an aquatic animal -- an otter, perhaps,. or a dolphin -- swimming through water. The music begins in the depths, as the violin sends out slow-motion vibrations that are echoed and transformed through the surrounding waters and caverns. A deep swell propels the violin to the surface, and she finds herself dancing down a tumbling, cascading stream, tossed about by the eddies and currents, nearly capsizing at times. Eventually the stream empties into a lake so still and so vast that it is impossible to know where the waters end and the heavens begin; one can hear the goddesses singing the world into existence. Waterborne was written and first performed while I was a visiting faculty member at The Evergreen State College, Olympia, Washington. I am especially indebted to Peter Randlette, who engineered and mixed this recording, for his sensitive ears and technical wizardry; for the final mix, Peter assembled no fewer than 18 different synthesizers!http://www.stonybrook.edu/commcms/music/aboutus/faculty/winkler_peter.html
Fabio Cifariello Ciardib. 1960ItalyFinzioni13’1991Violin and magnetic tapeFinzioni (Fictions) is the title of a collection of short stories of Jorge Luis Borges. . Without claiming to meet the writer in the ability to "play", my music seeks to use memory, specifically the common memory of public concerts, as a reference, as a center.http://www.fabiocifariellociardi.com/ciardi_recensioni.html
Fabio Cifariello Ciardib. 1960ItalyFinzioni13’1991Violin and magnetic tapeAll sound equipment is concrete and only drift violin sequences are recorded. In Finzioni, this "game" of memory, is applied to three types of references that define our idea of ​​the violin: violin timbre, violinistic articulation or gestures and segments from the traditionao repertoire. Each of these references is treated as a compositional parameter and electronic treatments allow continuous transformations between the two extremes: the original referent clearly that is recognizable and the material transformed that is totally unrecognizable.http://www.fabiocifariellociardi.com/ciardi_recensioni.html
Fabio Cifariello Ciardib. 1960ItalyFinzioni13’1991Violin and magnetic tapeIdeally I'd like to move subtly, fast and without the perceptual result of my music in the infinite spaces that represent all the timbre possibilities of the violin, all the instrumental joints and the huge mental space of our musical memory. Hence the idea to make this "fiction" both real and metaphorical, in a virtual space dreamed and created from a violin.http://www.fabiocifariellociardi.com/ciardi_recensioni.html
Hinkle-Turner, Elizabethb. 1964USAInsurrections II5’1991Violin and two-channel tapeThe piece should be approached as a battle; the two taped characters are enemies of each other and of the performer. All of you wish to control the situation. None of you can entirely, the composer thinks, but she asks you to please try!
McCarthy, Danielb. 1955USAHarmonizer9’1991Violin and computer generated synthesizersHarmonizer was written in the spring of 1991 for violinist and composer Roger Zahab, director of the New Music Group at the University of Akron and the University of Pittsburgh. The piece was transcribed for orchestra in 1994 and later revised in 2002. The intent of this piece was to combine a virtuosic violin solo with an electronic accompaniment. http://danielmccarthy.net
McCarthy, Danielb. 1955USAHarmonizer9’1991Violin and computer generated synthesizersThis is an ensemble-oriented composition, much like a concerto. In this case, the computer- generated synthesizers take the place of the orchestra ensemble in a controlled musical environment. From a purely musical point of view, the composer began to hear the piece not so much as a solo, but as a symphonic work, hence, the orchestral version.http://danielmccarthy.net
McCarthy, Danielb. 1955USAHarmonizer9’1991Violin and computer generated synthesizersAll pitches and rhythms in both the solo and the synthesized ensemble are specifically notated and not left to chance. The violin itself plays an electronic role in the work. The violin sound is processed through a vocal synthesizer. This sound processor regenerates the violin sound into as many different pitches (including the acoustic) as programmed into the computer by the composer. During sections of the piece, listeners can hear an ensemble of violins generated by the soloist.http://danielmccarthy.net
Oleszkowicz, Janb. 1947PolandScontra11’1991Violin and tape'Scontra' was composed in 1989-1990 at the Experimental Studio of Polish Radio. The electronic layer, computer-created, presents material that seems to be struggling through an increasingly denser texture with the violin part. The work received an awarded in 1991 at the International Electroacoustic Music Competition in Bourgeshttp://www.polmic.pl/index.php?option=com_mwosoby&id=152&view=czlowiek&litera=17&Itemid=5&lang=en
Saariaho, Kaijab. 1952FinlandDe la terre …15’1991Violin and electronicsThird section of the composer’s ballet Maa commissioned by the Balled of the Finnish National Opera. The title means, earth, land, or country. The ballet does not have a narrative, but is built around such thematic archetypes as doors, journeys, and the crossing of waters. Its emotive and intense monologue serves to stress the nucleic role it plays in the work as a whole.http://saariaho.org
Saariaho, Kaijab. 1952FinlandFrises20’2011Violin and electronicsFrises was born of Richard Schmoucler’s request who told me his idea of combining different works around Bach’s second partita for solo violin, particularly in relation to the last part, the Chaconne. He asked me to compose a piece to be performed after Bach’s Chaconne and start it with the note that ends this second partita movement, the D. My piece has four parts. I focused in each of them on the idea of one historical ostinato variation form, using as starting point carillon, passacaglia, ground bass and chaconne. There are four variations around a theme, a harmonic process or other musical parameters.http://saariaho.org
Sumarokov, Viktorb. 1954UkrainePartingN/A1991Two violins or violin and tape
Weymouth, Danielb. 1953USAAnother Violin6’1991Midi violin and computer-interactive electronicshttp://www.stonybrook.edu/commcms/music/aboutus/faculty/weymouth_daniel.html
Weymouth, Danielb. 1953USAThis Time, This5’1992Midi violin and computer-interactive electronicshttp://www.stonybrook.edu/commcms/music/aboutus/faculty/weymouth_daniel.html
Dudas, Richardb. 1963USAEtude-Habanera3’1991Violin and tapeThe tape part for this composition was created entirely using sounds recorded from a violin and a viola (pizzicato, sustained bowed notes, and tapping on the body of the instrument). These sounds, subsequently transformed via software processing, provide a melancholy counterpoint that is intimately linked to the sound of the live violin on stage.http://www.richarddudas.com
Dudas, Richardb. 1963USAThe Abominable Leaves of the Orchid Moon10’1988Amplified violin and tapeThe Abominable Leaves o f the Orchid Moon was created in the Peabody Electronic Music Studio and given its premiere in the spring of 1988. The texts by Van Choojitarom, which were used in movements II and IV, are allegorical depictions of the negative effects of television and government on a media-soaked mind.http://www.richarddudas.com
Dodge, Charlesb. 1942USAEtudes for violin and tape18’1992Violin and tape
Abdel-Gawad, Riadb. 1965USADancers on a Plane4’1992Violin and tapeThe premier of my work Dancers on a Plane preceded Kevin Volan’s work with the same title by two years. I am inspired by the work of collaborative artists John Cage, Merce Cunningham, and Jasper Johns. I premiered my work at the Cambridge-Harvard Museum Sound Installation on April 22, 1992, as I was the teaching fellow to the late Ivan Tcherepnin’s electronic music composition class at Harvard. The short piece repeated several times as I played the violin part and the tape part was sounded out in front of the original painting by Jasper Johns.http://www.musicariad.com
Abdel-Gawad, Riadb. 1965USATaqaseeem No. 211’1992Violin and tapeMy tendency to expand the acoustic sonorities and techniques for string instruments is grounded in my vision of a musical composition that moves towards a cross-cultural, trans-national synthesis of styles and traditions. I have come up with a number of hitherto unknown sonorities thus far bypassed by the experimental avant-garde. My violin has a tourte mute between the lower strings, to incorporate the characteristic sound of the (kamangah), which was the predecessor in the Middle East of the imported Westem violin. Pizzicato on these strings also suggests the darabukkah .http://www.musicariad.com
Abdel-Gawad, Riadb. 1965USATaqaseeem No. 211’1992Violin and tapeMy work, Taqaseem No. 2 for violin and tape is in keeping with “The Human Touch” theme because it includes not only a live violin but also my playing, on the tape, of four Egyptian musical instruments: the darabukkah, the semsimayyah (chordophone), the muzhar (idiophone) and the urghul (aerophone). Most of the sound material on the tape is also “human,” captured from field recordings from the Siwa oasis, Aswan, Cairo, and Alexandria. I used the computer as a tool to create a sound analog to time-elapsed photography, where the music “travels” over manydays in a compressed time, through Egypt.http://www.musicariad.com
Abdel-Gawad, Riadb. 1965USAAlbacore16’1993Violin and tapehttp://www.musicariad.com
Chambers, Evanb. 1963USARothko-Tobey Continuum5’1992 Violin and tapeThe title Rothko-Tobey Continuum refers to the artists Mark Rothko and Mark Tobey. I have often felt that the works of these two painters were related in spirit, approaching a similar sensibility through different means: luminous floating planes in Rothko's work and highly charged calligraphic line in Tobey's paintings. With this in mind, I have constructed the piece around two contrasting treatments of the same musical material, treatments that were inspired by, but are not imitative of, the distinctive character of the paintings. There is a lyrical quality to the work of both men, in spite of the abstractness of the images that they produced - this manifests itself in the melodic line of the solo part.http://www.evanchambers.net
Gibbons, Markb.1960USAScrub-reverse5’1992Amplified violin, interactive electronics, and tapehttp://kalvos.org/gibbons.html
Loy, Garethb.1945USABlood from a stone10’1992Mathews electronic violin and electronicswww.garethloy.com
Mitchell, Jonathanb. 1941USAMomentsN/A1992
Nordensten, Frankb. 1955NorwayMarginalia IIN/A1992Violin and tapewww.nordensten.com
Stiegler, Thomasb. 1966GermanyGran Partita12’1992Violin and tapehttp://www.wandelweiser.de/thomas-stiegler.html
Vinao, Ezequielb. 1960ArgentinaEl Simurgh - Book II "The seven Valleys"N/A (i-vii)1992Violin and electronicsThe form of the piece recreates the structure of the text. The basic materials introduced in the first book are subjected here to an extension of the traditional concept of thematic transformation: they are reinterpreted according to the poetic significance of the text. In instrumental terms, this is a classic concertante form where the soloist has to overcome overwhelming odds to succeed.http://www.tloneditions.com/welcome_to_tlon_editions.html
Yakub, Romanb. 1958UkraineThe Middle of the Void (C.A.G.E)14’1992Violin and tapeThe Middle o f the Void was originally composed in 1992 and dedicated to the memory of John Cage. An important aspect of the performance is the element of so-called “instrumental theater”. After completing the first part of the piece, the performer should leave the stage, and it would be great to leave the instrument onstage and to play a second instrument from the balcony or the place behind audience. It’s very Cagy! On the other hand, the piece is very open for creative thinking and I can tolerate literally everything that is done with taste.http://www.yakubmusic.com
Garnett, GuyN/AUSAInteractions IN/A1993Violin and computer-controlled digital sound processinghttp://www.music.illinois.edu/faculty/guy-garnett
Hoffinan, ElizabethN/AUSAVoice of the RainN/A1993Violin and tapehttps://wp.nyu.edu/elizabeth_hoffman/
Jones, Anthonyb. 1959AustraliaHot Cross Bun9’1993Violin and 4-track tapeIn this piece there are two main focii - the spatial movement of sound events, and the harmonic possibilities of quarter-tone scordatura. The opening chord of 17 notes is built up in 4ths and distributed between the concert-tuned and quarter-tone-tuned quartets. Each audience member will perceive this structure differently depending on the relative distance to each quartet (loudspeaker). The 17-note chord is also used horizontally to form a row, which appears at several points throughout the piece. The notes used within each quartet form a reasonably sonorous chord, but taken as a mass the overall effect is a 17-note chord spread across the full available tessitura. Additionally, I have used dynamic layering to bring out particular harmonies.
Jones, Anthonyb. 1959AustraliaHot Cross Bun9’1993Violin and 4-track tapeThe work is, for the most part, fairly static and slow moving. Within that framework I have placed several points of tension and release. The static nature of the work contains its own inherent tension, which builds up to a major climax right at the end of the work. The end forms both a contrast and a mirror of the opening. The 17-note chord is stated at a dynamic of fortissimo, but all parts play homorhythmically a violent syncopated rhythm with the 17-note row with all voices staggered so that at each note another 17-note chord is sounded - much like Schoenberg's Farben but blown up to gigantic proportions. Here positive and negative accents move around the circle in different directions.
Jones, Anthonyb. 1959AustraliaMandala7’1995Violin and tapeThis piece has been developed from a larger piece for dance written for the Dare Swan Dance Co. with choreographer Chris Jannides and premiered in October 1994 in and extended season at Bahnain Town Hall. The dance moved through symmetric and asymmetric patterns-this is represented in the music with rhythmic and arrhythmic passages. Three elements are combined to create the tape-part samples of Tibetan chant, percussion sounds, and computer speech reciting sections from the Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation. All these sources undergo various forms of manipulation: layering, reversal, time-stretching, pitch altering. The computer speech is generated by the Atari program. The resulting speech, while having a heavy-metal “charm”, is consequently not easy to understand. While a more sophisticated speech synthesizer might have given greater clarity, the current result suited the desired mood of the piece, which is dark and foreboding.
Jones, Anthonyb. 1959AustraliaMandala7’1995Violin and tapeAll the various drum sounds are created from a small number of source sounds. Pitch changing was applied in exact integer relationships above and below 1:1. Similarly, time-stretching is applied to repeated patterns of these treated sounds and then a sieve algorithm is applied to create “holes” in the resulting rhythm matrix. Throughout, however, the placement of individual notes has been slightly smudged to create the illusion of a large number of drums playing together.
McIntosh, Dianab. 1937CanadaThe Arm o f Dionysus18’1993Violin and tapeThis piece portrays the magical power of the Greek god Dionysus, during a mysterious and dramatic voyage.  On a ship bound for Naxos, Dionysus discovers that pirates have kidnapped him.  He invokes his power, and green vines twist up from the sea.  The mast, oars and sails are entwined in ivy, and the ship is immobilized.  The shrill, eerie sounds of a flue are heard.  Finding the evil crew still determined to sell him as a slave, Dionysus covers the deck with wild beasts.  He becomes a lion, and seizes the pirates' leader.  Terrified, the crew throw themselves into the sea and are transformed into dolphins.  The ship begins to move again with Dionysus, the Olympian god of the vine victorious on the deck.http://www.dianamcintosh.com
Mowitz, Irab. 1951IsraelKol AharonN/A1993Violin, mixed ensemble and digital soundtrackThe solo violin part is demanding:  fidgety music that shifts from virtuosic flights to elegiac musings. Often the solo violin floats almost unperturbed over the atmospheric hum of the ensemble, enriched with a digital soundtrack that includes the mumbling voice of the composer’s young son.http://www.iramowitz.com/HomePage.html
Ruzicka, Rudolfb. 1941Czech RepublicSuite No. 99’1993Violin and electroacoustic soundsSuite No. 9 was composed for a solo instrument and an accompaniment of electroacoustic sounds with the help of the computer program CCOMP (Computer COMposition Program), which was created also specifically for composition of instrumental and vocal pieces. The basic compositional principle of the program is the use of pseudorandom numbers within defined limits. They are intended to simulate random processes typical of the activity of nature and the human brain. The result is a specific and self-contained compositional style. The electroacoustic sounds were realized in the Electroacoustic Studio of Czech Radio in Prague. Performed by Ladislav Navratil, an excellent player on violin of the Prague Radio Symphony Orchestra.http://www.musicbase.cz/composers/823-ruzicka-rudolf/
Krause, DrewN/AUSAPanic!9’1994Violin and tapePanic includes 4 computer-generated keyboard synthesizer parts, which share motivic and harmonic material. The piece features abrupt changes between sections of duple-tactus, predominant at the beginning and growing shorter, and triplet figures, which gradually take over.http://kalvos.org/kraused.html www.kalvos.org
Link, StanN/AUSARH15’1994Violin and computer generated tapeRH- is what a friend of mine, Eliot Handelman, might consider to be a listening simulation—an attempt to project listening itself, rather than utterance. It is essentially the memory of other music as well as the recollection of itself. With its power to make things simultaneously both more and less like themselves, I have come to believe that memory is the sea that contains us. This is not simply the memory of public history, but the vast ocean of private recall and reflection that constitutes the only viable answer to the question of who we are when faced with the loss of what we are. RH- is titled after a nickname given by Richard Hoffinann, my teacher at Oberlin, to Roman Haubenstock-Ramati, in and o f whose memory the piece was composed. Haubenstock was a brilliant composer, inspiring teacher, and a good friend. His music was siren-song to me at a time when my ship needed to be wrecked in order to save its passenger from drowning on dry land. When I broke the news of Haubenstock's death to Hoffinann (RH+), his friend said wistfully that, 'We're next, Stan." Yes, we are. But we are not now.http://blair.vanderbilt.edu/bio/stanley-link
Pape, Gerardb. 1955USALa Fleuve du désir IV12’1994Violin, tape, and live electronicsThe inspiration for Le Fleuve began with the observation of various kinds of fluids: rivers, water boiling in a pan, and a fluid of a different sort, what Freud called "libido," which is the mythological fluid that he used to describe the ebb and flow of human desire. My "river of desire" was, thus, inspired by fluid flow, real and fantasized--that is, it was not a question of a tone poem that would describe in realistic detail the flow of a natural river--but, rather, a river of sound that would flow as my musical imagination would require.http://www.kalvos.org/papeger.html
Pape, Gerardb. 1955USALa Fleuve du désir VN/A1994Violin, tape, and live electronicsThe inspiration for Le Fleuve began with the observation of various kinds of fluids: rivers, water boiling in a pan, and a fluid of a different sort, what Freud called "libido," which is the mythological fluid that he used to describe the ebb and flow of human desire. My "river of desire" was, thus, inspired by fluid flow, real and fantasized--that is, it was not a question of a tone poem that would describe in realistic detail the flow of a natural river--but, rather, a river of sound that would flow as my musical imagination would require.http://www.kalvos.org/papeger.html
Rhodes, Phillipb. 1940USAFiddletunes no. 11994Violin and synthesized stringsFiddletunes (No. 1) is based on two traditional Appalachian fiddle tune Blackberry Blossom and Teetotaler). This traditional musical language is transformed through its own interval structures into other shapes and contexts (including a reference to a famous passage from Stravinsky’s Rite o f Spring). From the outset, however, the tunes are placed in the context of two complementary but opposing scale structures. The first is an E-minor scale of six notes (the pitch C is omitted). This is the original scale of the traditional tune for Blackberry Blossom. The second scale, which is overlaid on the tune is the octatonic relative which begins on the first three notes of the E-minor scale. These two scales have common elements, but they sound very different and serve to create two distinct pitch regions (or two distinct “keys” if you will). The focus in this piece is on virtuosic violin techniques and, of course, on the “contest” between the solo fiddler and the relentless tape accompaniment. The “orchestration” also raises the question over and over as to what is “live” and what is not. The form of the piece could be described as a series of variations with fast fiddle tune sections alternating with more rhapsodic episodes based on transformations derived from the original tunes.http://prhodescomposer.com
Anderson, Bethb. 1950USAMay Swale6’1995Violin with electronicsA swale is a meadow or a marsh where a lot of wild plants grow together. The composer discovered the word when a horse named Swale won the Kentucky Derby several years ago. Since her work is primarily collage of newly composed musical swatches, she has used the name extensively. The swatches in this piece are in a variety of styles and feeling states. This swale was composed for Mimi Dye and named for the month of its premiere.http://www.beand.com
Burck, Rainerb. 1953GermanySTRINgendo9’1995Violin and computerrainer bürck bad urach
Boschetto, Francescob. 1970ItalyTrasumanar12’1995Violin and tapeIt is dedicated to the memory of Pier Paolo Pasolini, and was inspired by his life and film. Refers to The Gospel According to Saint Matthew a startlingly realistic film, unabashedly vivid in the incredible plainness of its actors and locations, thought-provoking in so many ways, but very boring. And this Boschetto composition, thematically barren, harmonically clotted, and sustained-chord drenched, lands in the same camp. At first hearing, you sense great things are happening through- out its 11-min length, while you struggle in vain to make structural sense of the thing. After a half- dozen sessions of enduring its screeches, its ponderous angst, and its utter bleakness, you begin to hear the piece as the ghost of a drunken yet meticulous Schoenberg getting lost in an echo chamber in a fervent attempt to musically depict a day in the life of an iceberg.
Charvet, Pierreb. 1968FranceBrandenburg10’1995Violin and computerBrandenburg, a piece written for solo violin and computer, is a double homage to Johann Sebastian Bach’s music for violin and to Sofia Gubaidulina’s Ofertorium which is itself, already an homage to that composer The computer part is realized not only starting from real sounds of violins (particularly fro my String Quartet, transformed on the computer), but also from the sounds of virtual strings. A violin with gold strings, for example, thanks to physical model sound synthesis, discovered at IRCAM with my piece Qohelet.http://www.pierre-charvet.com
Fenrich, Samb. 1947RussiaNu Age10’1995Violin and tapeThe violin part is conventionally notated while the electroacoustic part is not written out. Meters and bar lines are used, and the metronome marking at the beginning of the piece indicates the tempo for the entire piece is 50 BPM.
Gillet, Brianb. 1972USABehind the Refrigerator DoorN/A1995Solo violin and mediahttp://briangillett.com/main.swf
Guy, Barryb. 1947UKCeremony17’1995Baroque violin and seven-track tapeThe brief for the commission offered several parameters for consideration: The baroque violin (at pitch A = 415), tape multi-tracking, a Navajo Indian chant, and the wish that the composition would be best suited to the acoustics of a church. At the heart of Ceremony is a series of “meditations” that prescribe various levels of phrase hierarchy to be layered on the seven tape tracks, as well as material for live performance. In a sense, the performer can construct the emotional density of the musical accompaniment. Reflecting the Navajo chant’s text of repetition and subtle change, each meditation offers similar and dissimilar characteristics as focal points for the performer. In the final section of the work, a choir of violins slowly makes their way towards the end in ceremonial fashion focusing on the meditative quality of the Navajo chant. The text of the chant is:
Guy, Barryb. 1947UKCeremony17’1995Baroque violin and seven-track tapeWith beauty I walk
Guy, Barryb. 1947UKCeremony17’1995Baroque violin and seven-track tapeImpervious to pain I walk
Guy, Barryb. 1947UKCeremony17’1995Baroque violin and seven-track tapeFeeling light within I walk
Guy, Barryb. 1947UKCeremony17’1995Baroque violin and seven-track tapeWith lively feeling I walk
Guy, Barryb. 1947UKCeremony17’1995Baroque violin and seven-track tapeWith beauty before me I walk
Guy, Barryb. 1947UKCeremony17’1995Baroque violin and seven-track tapeWith beauty behind me I walk
Guy, Barryb. 1947UKCeremony17’1995Baroque violin and seven-track tapeWith beauty below me I walk
Guy, Barryb. 1947UKCeremony17’1995Baroque violin and seven-track tapeWith beauty above me I walk
Guy, Barryb. 1947UKCeremony17’1995Baroque violin and seven-track tapeThe player is invited to consider performing the music from different locations of the concert space, presenting a moving perspective for the solo part. The different positions can be reached during the beginning of each “meditation”.
Risset, Jean-Claudeb. 1938FranceVariants8’1995Violin and digital signal processingVariants is dedicated to violinist and composer Mari Kimura, who created the piece at the 1994 Helsinki Festival. The piece takes advantage of Mari Kimura's extraordinary skills, in particular the extension of the pitch range which she pioneered : thus sounds lower than the G of the G string can be heard toward the beginning. Producing such sounds demands an extremely precise control. The title refers to the transformations of violin sounds produced in real-time by digital processing, but also to certain processes of variations within the violin part. For instance the timing intervals of melodic groups, causing so-called stream segregation, are echoed as mere rhythms. Digital transpositions, echoes and reverberation build up a contrapuntal and harmonic fabric which extends the violin melodies.http://www.cnrs.fr/cw/fr/pres/compress/risset1.htm
Soveral, Isabelb. 1961Portugal Anamorphoses III12’1995Solo violin and tapehttp://www.mic.pt/cimcp/dispatcher?where=0&what=2&show=0&compositor_id=85&pessoa_id=161&lang=EN&site=cim
Tiensuu, Jukkab. 1948Finland Odd Job6’1995Violin and electronics
Velazquez, Ileanab. 1964CubaUn ser con unas alas enormes …1995Violin and tapeUn ser con unas alas enormes . . . , which translates as “a being with enormous wings . . . ”, was inspired by the 17th Freeman Etude for violin by John Cage. Within the hectic gestures that are a major part of this etude are passages reminiscent of Cuban rhythms. An important idea for Cage is that human beings can be better themselves by overcoming their limitations. This piece translates that spirit; humans improve through the use of their imagination. The title is also related to the literary work by Gabriel Garcia Marquez: “un bombre muy viejo con unas alas muy grandes”. The tape part, as a departure of style, is fragmentary, and contains processed excerpts from the Freeman Etudes. The piece also includes some concepts of silence that are present in non-Western music. The use of silence as a conscious part of the piece yet again reflects back to Cage.http://ileanaperezvelazquez.com
Zeng, LiN/AN/AViolin ConcertoN/A1995Violin and computer-generated tapehttps://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/3060414
Zoltowski, Maciejb. 1971PolandEmetN/A1995Violin and tapeEMET is a hebrew word with magical propriety of enlivening lifeless matter. The simple meaning of this word is “the truth“. Great magicians, masters of Qaballah, used to write EMET on creatures made of clay or wood, called Golems. The only way to stop the Golem, to destroy him, was to erase the first letter of the written on his body EMET. Remaining MET ment “dead“. My piece is a kind of violin concerto, with a computer instead of an orchestra reacting like a living creature to the part of solo violin: sometimes it plays precisely what is written in the score, sometimes with the soloist’s and composer’s astonishment it makes new associations with the solo part. The violin sound is transformed in different ways, which bring it near the electronic media. The first sound of solo part triggers an action. It vivifies the “dead“ computer. Afterwards it is really difficult to stop it.http://zoltowski.instantencore.com/web/home.aspx
Browning, Zackb. 1953USASole injection10’1996Amplified violin and computer-generated tapeThis composition is the fifth in a series of works by the composer, which uses the magic square of the sun as a compositional model. O f the enormous number of magic Squares it is possible to form, seven have been associated with the seven planets of the Ptolemaic Universe (Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, The Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon). These "Ptolemaic Magic Squares" appear in De Occulta Philosophia, a book on magic by the Renaissance polymath Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa Von Nettesheim published in 1531. A magic square consists of a series of numbers arranged so that the sum of each row, column and diagonal is the same amount. Eleven different routes through the square (the middle nine each having a duration of 55 seconds) are mapped onto a musical structure based upon the magic square. The unique position of each number within the square is paralleled in the musical score by a particular style, rhythm,density, timbre and orchestration.http://www.zackbrowning.com
Dolden, Paulb. 1956CanadaGravity’s Stillness. Resonance #615’1996Violin and tapeThe work is based on fairy simple melodic and harmonic ideas. The interest for me in this type of work is to use the recording studio to create a series of distinct sound worlds, or orchestrations, based on these melodic and harmonic ideas. The tape becomes the catalyst for creating the changes in mood and tone. The live soloist repeatedly states the melodic ideas in a simple to very virtuosic manner.http://www.electrocd.com/en/bio/dolden_pa/
Everett, SteveN/AUSARendezvous IN/A1996Violin and tapehttp://www.steveeverett.info
Ferrari, Fabriziob. 1971ItalyCold Fusion7’1996Violin and live electronics
Gamstorp, Goranb. 1957SwedenShadow Pulse15’1996Violin and electronicsGamstorp has been strongly influenced by both Afro-American music and Western art music, and from 1991 onwards he has concentrated on pulse in a series of works called Puls I-VII (Pulse I-VII) where the pulse determines the entire musical development. After an extended visit to Paris (in 1995 he was the first Swedish composer to be accepted for IRCAM’s one-year course “Cursus de composition et d’informatique musicale”) he has increasingly applied harmonic principles in his compositions and united different musical elements to form a new whole with a broader perspective. This is noticeable in Shadow pulse (1996) for violin and electronics, which was first performed at IRCAM in Paris in 1997.http://www.mic.stim.se/412566CD0052EF54/WebV5BiografierAZeng/D50ACCB5ADE6D46341256492002D23BA
Morrison, Johnb. 1956USARising Blue13’1996Violin and tapeThe music o f Rising Blue uses some very ancient procedures. In the first place, it partakes of the long-out-of-fashion accompanied sonata tradition. In certain works of Mozart and other classical composers, the violin parts served more as obbligato accompaniment than as soloistic vehicles, and that describes somewhat the relationship between the violin and tape here. Secondly, in the first large section, each of the sound groups moves gradually to an individual cadence, much in the manner of vocal lines in polyphonic medieval and renaissance music. Every sound in Rising Blue was first produced on the violin. The tape part incorporates a wide range of digital signal processing of those sounds, from virtually none at all to moderate alteration. The music is in two large movements, with an interlude and postlude o f similar sonic content. The title of the work comes from the name, which the composer attached to the sound source of the postlude.http://www.johnmorrison.org
Schwartz, Francisb. 1940USAAires Granadinos10’1996Violin and tapeAire Granadinos (Airs of Granada) was inspired by an extraordinary visit to that magical Spanish city in April 1995. The following is the composer’s own account of the experience, which is reflected in the composition. “From our bedroom window at the legendary Carmen de la Victoria I had a magical view of the Alhambra, so full of mystical meaning for me. I remember when I was a child of nine or ten my polyglot father, voracious explorer of world cultures, would speak to me of Al-Andaluzs, Sefarad, Islam, the Jews, Seville, Cordova and ‘Granata al Yahud’, of Maimonides and the architectural genius of the Moors.http://www.potenzamusic.com/schwartz-121828.cfm
Schwartz, Francisb. 1940USAAires Granadinos10’1996Violin and tapeAs I felt the powerful presence of the Alhambra, I relived my student years at the Julliard School when the marvelous recording by Artur Rubinstein and Enrique Jordan of Manuel de Falla’s Night in the Garden of Spain accompanied me, in Andalusian style, with subtle tones and imaginative fragrances in the midst of the Upper West Side urban tumult. I always knew that at some point in my life I would visit Granada, or perhaps ‘revisit’ would be more appropriate.http://www.potenzamusic.com/schwartz-121828.cfm
Schwartz, Francisb. 1940USAAires Granadinos10’1996Violin and tapeMy contact with musicians, theater folk, and poets as well as other academics was a splendid exercise in camaraderie. I recall the gastronomic delights of the Figon de Triana restaurant and my moving visit to Garcia Lorca’s summer home where I played a Chopin waltz on the very piano where the gifted Federico and Manuel de Falla had together explored the wonders of music. I treasured the long walks through the streets of Granada and gardens of the Alhambra with my existential co-conspirator, Marta, to whom the work is dedicated. I felt the multimillion stories of centuries past, filled with the joy and sadness, with magical energies and even at times a touch of terror and admiration as hooded penitents danced the Virgin into the Cathedral of Granada. All of these experiences are part of my Aire Granadinos, from the Manhattan past to the Andalusian landscape and finally to the beautiful tropical vistas of San Juan de Puerto Rico. Truly, creation is a pleasure.”http://www.potenzamusic.com/schwartz-121828.cfm
Wiemann, Bethb. 1959USAHornpipe Dreams9’1996Violin and tapeHornpipe Dreams uses sampled elements of the hornpipe movement of Handle’s Water Music to make the environment in which the soloist plays. The melodic lines are sometimes in sync with the modified baroque sounds found in the electronic accompaniment and sometimes more romantically shaped.https://bethwiemann.com
Wiemann, Bethb. 1959USASwan Song7’1998Violin and tapeSwan Song uses samples of birdsong to shape a more percussive kind of accompaniment for the soloist, in which the soloist is more similar to the sounds of the tape as the piece moves into its second half.https://bethwiemann.com
Tavener, John1944-2013EnglandM y Gaze is ever upon You1997Violin and tapeMy Gaze is ever upon You is a series of sixteen gazes, moments and ecstatic breaths written in Trinitarian guise - written for solo violin with taped violin and a string drone pre-recorded in a reverberant acoustic.The music was written during two periods of prolonged stays in my house in Greece. As far as possible, they are spontaneous reactions to people, to landscapes, to animals, to creeping things - an attempt to create a Theophany and an anthropo-phany. To see God in everything, for "everything that lives is Holy". It is dedicated to Clio Gould and is written in loving memory of Matthew Sullivan.http://johntavener.com
Boulez, Pierre1925-2016FranceAnthemes II24’1998Violin and electronic deviceIn 1995, Pierre Boulez decided to compose an electroacoustic version of Anthemes. The realization of this version was entrusted to Andrew Gerzso. Anthemes II adopts a live approach; this is why all the electronic material is generated in real time during the representation. The starting point for this project was the May 1992 version of the piece. The first question was how to coordinate the interpretation of the soloist with that of the computer. In Anthemes coordination is completely automated using a "follower of score". The computer listens to the soloist and compares the soloist’s playing with the score (which was stored beforehand in its memory) to define the precise moment of the release of the modifications affecting the amplitude, the envelope, the tempo/rhythm and the spatialization of the sound. Thus, during the preparation of Anthemes II, many experiments were made to establish the various musical parameters of the violin (amplitude, dynamics, time,...) , which can be detected for the follow-up of the score. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Boulez
Boulez, Pierre1925-2016FranceAnthemes II24’1998Violin and electronic deviceNumerous drafts followed the experiments with the emphasis on choosing the types of interactions to occur between the violin and the computer. A natural consequence of all this was that in the course of work, the part was gradually rewritten to take advantage of the new musical possibilities offered by electronics. It then quickly appeared that electronics would fill three roles: 1. to modify and extend the sound structure of the violin 2. to modify and extend the structure of the families of musical writing and 3. to create a spatial element to allow the sound to be localized or move: from, at, through, between, and to any point or region in the performance space.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Boulez
Chen, Chin-Chinb. 1964TaiwanPoints of Arrival8’1998Violin and tapeIf Points o f Departure (1996 for vibraphone and tape) is for new life raptures, Points o f Arrival is for mature life meditations. Points o f Arrival explores the relationship between a solo live performer and a musique concrete sonic environment, created through MIDI. The opening section for tape alone creates a ferocious but harmless environment, shortly to be contrasted by a lyrical exploration by the soloist, supported by the tape. The subsequent return of the violin exhibits the virtuoso aspect of the instrument, this time in composition with the tape. The last section finds the lyrical material recapitulated, in new dramatic garb.
Chen, Yuanlinb. 1957ChinaJing Yun11’1998Violin and tapeJing Yun has some elements of Chinese Beijing Opera. Those who are familiar with the Beijing Opera may recognize those elements. But since some of these materials have been changed, one should listen very closely.http://yuanlinchen.sunbow.us
Fratini, OberdanN/AItalyDanze Pagane5’1998Violin and tape
Kreiger, Arthurb. 1945USAKeeping company8’1998Violin and tapeThe consenting parties in Keeping Company are a violin and an electronic tape. They speak with distinct voices reflecting highly individual personalities, yet their conversation is informed by common interest and mutual acquaintance. At times the discourse is argumentative with each participant doggedly asserting its own musical gesture. In other areas of the composition the mood turns agreeable, even amorous. Here the lines often meld seamlessly or the players intuitively begin to complete each other’s thoughts. The piece was written in celebration of the opening of the new Electronic Music Studio at NCSA (North Carolina School of the Arts at Winston-Salem) and dedicated to Curtis Macomber. The electronic tape was realized, in part, at the new facility and, in part, at the composer’s own studio in Connecticut. Despite the many new devices available, a large number of taped elements explore early musique concrete techniques. The soundtrack is infused with the sonic opulence of real-world ringing metals. Shapeshifting abounds. A lasagna pan is metamorphosed into a gong from an exotic folk culture. A metal ashtray becomes a strange bell that alters its identity during the course of a lengthy delay. A shovel blade appears once as a piercing anvil and later as a triangle of unusual girth. The violin’s mode of articulation, for example: arco vs. pizzicato, harmonics vs. full string resonance, mute vs. no mute, assists in defining the formal areas within the composition’s sectional structure.http://composers.com/arthur-kreiger
McGarity, Kristib. 1974USAAM fugue10’1998Violin and tapeAM Fugue portrays a sleeping person trying not to wake up despite a multitude of outside sounds invading his disoriented dream state. The title refers to "Fugue" as both a disturbed state of consciousness and, very loosely, as an organizing principle in the piece. There are two main recurring themes that are taken through several "episodes" based on alarm clock sounds, door knock sounds, pizzicato sounds, and so on. The structure of the piece alternates between sections where the notes synchronize precisely with the tape and sections where the violin plays a freer role.http://www.mcgaritymusic.com
Rowe, RobertN/AUSASubmarine8’1998Violin and signal processingCollaboration with Mari Kimura. https://wp.nyu.edu/robert_rowe/
Swafford, Tomb. 1972USAString X-ing7’1998Violin and tapeString X-ing combines my interests in composition and improvisation. All material in the recorded part was taken from a series of recordings I made of my own violin improvisations. I then organized the material into a kind of palette. I used the ProTools program to compose from this palette. Composing with the actual sound, as opposed to standard notation, enabled me to expand my musical vocabulary. As an improvising violinist I have always felt more freedom in terms of the sonorities I can create, and using the ProTools program enabled me to compose with these sonorities. The live portion is improvised, but is organized around specific moments and textures in the taped portion. The term “string x-ing” was an abbreviation I used to label a certain gesture when organizing the source material. The title is also a humorous reference to street signs (for example, "cattle x-ing, pedestrian x-ing"). The letter X is also a reference to Xenakis, whose music was an inspiration for this piece.http://www.tomswafford.com
Ferrari, Luc1929-2005FranceTautologos 321’1999Violin, piano and electronicshttp://www.lucferrari.org
Ferrari, Luc1929-2005FranceDidascalies21’2003Violin, piano and electronicshttp://www.lucferrari.org
Ferrari, Luc1929-2005FranceRencontres Foruites25’2004Violin, piano and electronicshttp://www.lucferrari.org
Garcia, Orlando Jacintob. 1954CubaImagenes (sonidos) sonoros congelados15’1999Violin and tapeImagenes (Sonidos) Sonoros Congelados (suspended sonic images) was written for violinist Robert Davidovici during the fall of 1999. The title of the work refers to the gestures (sonic images) that are captured (suspended in time) on the tape. In addition, many of the same “suspended” gestures are heard in the violin part throughout the piece. The limited number of gestures, coupled with the slow evolution of materials is an attempt at creating the sense of a “freezing” or stillness of time in the listener. Imagenes (Sonidos) Sonoros Congelados also features the spatial movement of the sounds coming from the live violin part, as the player is required to gradually move to music stands increasingly further back on the stage. The tape part for Imagines (Sonidos) Sonorous Congelados was realized at the Music Technology Center of Florida Intemational University in Miami.http://www.orlandojacintogarcia.com
Geers, Douglasb. 1968USATurnstile6’1999Violin and computer musicTurnstile is a work for violin with computer-generated sounds which contrasts moments of "interior" and "exterior" experience, plunging the listener into an auditory environment of samples which have been abstracted to varying degrees and contrasting supple melodic lines and soft textures with boisterous rhythms and crunchy sound colors. The piece is also meant to simulate one's psychological processes while moving from a "private" to "public" environment and the mind's attempt to retain its private world while also constraining one's behavior to fall within that which is allowed during public interaction. Thus the name of the piece: A turnstile, as one would encounter when entering a subway, is a mechanical device whose function clearly is to allow or prevent one's access to a public space. It is the threshold that one must traverse to gain access to a particular public space, that of mass public transit. Performing extensive signal processing upon a small set of field recordings and studio samples in order to develop the sounds necessary to realize the formal design of the piece created this piece. The samples were of two main origins: first, recordings made in the 125th Street 1/9 subway station inhttp://www.dgeers.com
Geers, Douglasb. 1968USATurnstile6’1999Violin and computer musicManhattan, New York City. The second sound set consisted of samples created during a recording session in which a violinist played materials written for this piece.http://www.dgeers.com
Karpen, Richardb. 1957USASotto/Sopra15’1999Amplified violin and real-time computer processingSotto/Sopra, composed in 1999, is essentially a work for solo violin rather than a work for violin accompanied by an electronic part. The computer part results entirely from the processing of live input of the amplified violin in real time by programs created using SuperCollider on a Macintosh computer. Since the computer part is “in-sync” with the violin (in the sense that the two are always directly related; they are not necessarily exactly time-synchronous), the effect is that of a violin with an extended range and with the possibility of sounding many note and different sound colors at the same time. Before composing Sotto/Sopra it had been over ten years since I had last created a work for live digital audio (I have preferred to have the computer-realized sounds preprocessed and prerecorded on tape or CD). Much has changed technologically since that time and while my own work has changed too this piece is, in certain ways, a return to a style that I had left for a number of years. It draws ideas and techniques from a solo viola piece. Stream that I composed in 1986. The opening gesture of the current work paraphrases the end of the earlier one, closing the gap I time between the two pieces.www.richardkarpen.com
Kulenty, Hannab. 1961PolandCadenza8’1999Solo violin and delayhttp://www.hannakulenty.com/04.3_music_theatre.html
Olofsson, Kentb. 1962SwedenIl Sogno di Tartini17’1999Violin and tapeOne night in 1713 the Italian composer and violinist Giuseppe Tartini dreamt that the devil came to him, took his violin, and played a solo so fantastic that it was beyond anything he had ever heard. Tartini woke up, seized his violin, and tried to play some of the things he heard in the dream, but in vain. Instead, he sat down and composed a sonata over his impressions from the dream. This became the Sonata del Diavolo, the Devil’s Trill Sonata, a g-minor sonata in four movements.http://www.kentolofsson.com
Olofsson, Kentb. 1962SwedenIl Sogno di Tartini17’1999Violin and tapeII Sogno di Tartini is composed on a few fragments from the Devil’s Trill Sonata and on a number of recorded phrases and gestures that Bodil Rorbech plays on her violin. All the material in the tape part originated from these recordings. The material has been processed and mixed in various computer programs, and the violin part has been created out of the tape part material. The most prominent material in both the tape and the violin part is the use of all the different trills. The piece can be performed either with a tape part or with a computer where the performer triggers the different parts of the tape.http://www.kentolofsson.com
Pennycook, Bruceb. 1949CanadaPanmure vistas11’1999Violin and computerPanmure Vistas was composed in 1999 while I was vacationing with my family in Panmure Island Provincial Park, Prince Edward Island, Canada. The park is on the southeastern tip of PEI and has magnificent sea-views. While there, we attended a Celtic Festival and some of the violin playing spilled over into this piece. The electronics were originally created in SuperCollider 2 but have since been updated in Max/MSP. The CD, score and software are available from the composer. Panmure Vistas as been performed many times, primarily by Gascia Ouzounian at Festivals including The Banff Center for the Arts, McGill University, The University of Texas at Austin.www.brucepennycook.com
Rosenzweig, Morrisb. 1952USAPartita Intrecciata13’1999Violin and tapehttp://www.morrisrosenzweig.com
Rudy, Paulb. 1962USAParallax No. 111’1999Violin and tapehttp://www.paulrudy.com/Paul_Rudy/Home.html
Ter Veldhuis, Jacobb. 1951NetherlandsGrab IT!9’1999Electric violin, soundtrack, and videoGrowing up in the sixties with blues, jazz and rock, American music had a strong impact on my work. In GRAB IT! I tried to explore the ‘no-man’s-land’ between language and music. I believe that language is one of the origins of music. So in my opinion, the roots of a lot of  Afro-American music is in the spoken word. The musical quality of speech increases by the power of emotion, which is one of the reasons I use audio from people in extremely emotional situations. Crying can sound like singing, for instance. Life on the fringe has always inspired me. Grab It! is based on voice samples from life-sentenced prisoners. The rude vitality of their verbal abuse matches the harsh sound of a tenor sax. GRAB IT! is a kind of duet, a 'dual’ if you like, for tenorsax and soundtrack. The horn competes in unison with a perpetual range of syllables, words and sentences, which demands intense endurance from the performer. The meaning of the lyrics becomes gradually clear during the piece, as well as the hopeless situation for the prisoners. In jail suicide is not uncommon: 'He tied one end around the pipe, and he hung himself. So he went out the back door rapped up in a green sheet with a tag on his toe....You lose everything!' But in a way, death row is also a metaphor for life. But the piece is not just sad, but can also be understood as a ‘memento vivere’. Life is worth living: Grab it!’www.jacobtv.net
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tape“a reprieve, a moment out of the glare
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapea radiant white darkness
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapea dusty candle
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapethe good dark night descending
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapethe ground black and warm
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapethe desperate darkness
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapea rush of blackness
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapethe clouds are as hard as stones, and we all dream one black dream
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapea rush of blackness
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapethe desperate darkness
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapea vast and featureless slope of white
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapeice-mirrors
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapein the cold moonshade
Van Helbert, Hansb. 1959NetherlandsThis Shallow Light II1999Violin and tapebridges fading into darkness”
Finnrndahl, Ormb. 1963GermanyKommen und Gehen15’2000Violin and tape/live electronicKommen und Gehen is conceived for violin and tape/live-electronics. As the audience is fluctuating permanently through the building, the actual piece was prepared by a “preface” and a sound installation in the hall, which serves two purposes. While permitting people to stay or to leave the building at will, it tries to gain the attention of the audience by using a strictly processural setup: The preface consists of a single pitch, played by the violin. This note is recorded and transmitted electronically transformed through the loudspeakers. In principle, the installation is some sort of “digestive” process, in which the resulting sounds are repeatedly transmitted through the system, and once again transformed. This recursive process, which is closely related to structures I often use in my compositional work, leads to a densification of sound. In the original version, this process takes about 2 hours and has been shortened on the CD.
Finnrndahl, Ormb. 1963GermanyKommen und Gehen15’2000Violin and tape/live electronicThe final piece for violin and tape starts with the densified sound, which is abruptly stopped by a Bartok pizzicato on the violin. Like the installation, the piece also transforms sounds originally performed by the violin and re-feeds them into the system, thus creating a network of the live-violin and the sounds it originated. Since the algorithms are used for both, the installation and the concert piece model some sort of artificial life. The basic idea is quite simple in confronting the violin with the “creatures” it created (with often unpredicted results).
Galbraith, Craigb. 1975CanadaSilhouette8’2000Violin and tapeA simple idea lies behind Silhouette for Violin and Tape. The live violin is echoed by the tape part, and the tape part is echoed by the violin. Most of the sounds on the tape part are processed audio samples of a recorded violin. The tape and violin never quite line up, creating out-of-sync music phrases or "silhouettes". The processed sounds combine with unprocessed samples and the live violin in a fabric of sound, which exploits their common qualities and star differences.http://www.craiggalbraith.com
Hellstenius, Henrikb. 1963NorwayDream of late13’2000Violin and tapeThis work for violin and tape is the second stage in a collaboration between violinist Peter Herresthal and Henrik Hellstenius, which will finally result in a concerto for violin and orchestra. Dream o f Late is based on fragments composed for Norwegian National Theatre’s production of Dream at Autumn by Jon Fosse. In this music, Hellstenius and Herresthal worked together to explore the myriad of nuances, which can be produced in the uppermost register of the violin. The ambivalent poetry of the instrument in this register, with its unpleasant, knife-sharp edge and barely audible harmonic trills, forms the starting point of the work. The work is in three parts, where each consists of a limited musical material, which develops in spirals. The idea of a spiral development is a central element in much of Hellstenius’s music, and gives a picture of the fundamental themes this piece attempts to address: the simultaneous co-existence of the contrasting elements of stagnation and movement.http://hellstenius.no
Hurst, DerekN/AUSATonus7’2000Violin and tapeIn Tonus, the electronically synthesized “tape part” at times serves as an extension of the live instruments, and at others, its contrapuntal complement. The resulting form alternates between sections of slowly moving, anticipatory music, and sections of faster, rhythmically active music. A constant but slight tension ultimately yields to rigidly strenuous and contrapuntal activity. Hence the title Tonus: a normal and continuous state of slight tension, which facilitates response to stimulus. Synthetic approximations of violin-like or violin-derived sounds form the sonic basis of the electronic “tape” part. This bastard “instrument” of exaggerated pizzicato, bow, and extraneous violin-body noise, (etc....), is employed in an effort to extend the acoustical properties and range of the violin, and to excite and manipulate the live-ambience of a performing space.https://derekhurst.net
Keren-Huss, Kikib. 1955IsraelMi8’2000Violin and tapeWhen I started writing this piece I had in mind the violin player standing on stage, completely alone and silent, playing some fragments of a thought, listening to far away noises, also part of his thought.http://www.kikikeren-huss.com/home.htm
Keren-Huss, Kikib. 1955IsraelMi8’2000Violin and tapeI wanted to trace-follow the outlines of a fleeting thought, moving on from one thing to another. So I put together some notes, four or five, a woman humming to herself house noises, a child's voice, and in the end it all circled around Mi, reminding me of a fragment from a play.http://www.kikikeren-huss.com/home.htm
Keren-Huss, Kikib. 1955IsraelMi8’2000Violin and tapeThe Butterfly Hunter and the Bride by Israeli playwright Nisim Aloni.http://www.kikikeren-huss.com/home.htm
Keren-Huss, Kikib. 1955IsraelMi8’2000Violin and tapeButterfly hunter: What's your name?http://www.kikikeren-huss.com/home.htm
Keren-Huss, Kikib. 1955IsraelMi8’2000Violin and tapeBride: Mi.http://www.kikikeren-huss.com/home.htm
Keren-Huss, Kikib. 1955IsraelMi8’2000Violin and tapeButterfly hunter: Your name!http://www.kikikeren-huss.com/home.htm
Keren-Huss, Kikib. 1955IsraelMi8’2000Violin and tapeBride: Mi.http://www.kikikeren-huss.com/home.htm
Keren-Huss, Kikib. 1955IsraelMi8’2000Violin and tapeButterfly hunter: Your name is Mi?http://www.kikikeren-huss.com/home.htm
Keren-Huss, Kikib. 1955IsraelMi8’2000Violin and tapeBride: My name is Mi.http://www.kikikeren-huss.com/home.htm
Forshee, Johnb. 1975USADouble mirrorN/A2000Violin and computer-generated soundDouble Mirror was written between January and March of this year. The title refers to the experience of standing between two mirrors: the violinist stands between two mirrors, and while facing one can only see her partial image from behind. The body blocks the line of sight. Turing sideways, to a different angle, her image still is largely blocked from view. Perhaps the violinist would wish to become transparent, an invisible eye, able to see her image at once frombehind and ahead, simultaneously, from all angleshttp://jonforshee.net
Kirk, Jonathanb. 1975USAI was born on JupiterN/A2000Violin and tapeI once had a mind-altering dream that I lived in Outer Space. I slept, ate, lived, and breathed in the void of the cold, black, and infinite realm of undifferentiated nothingness. This piece was conceived with these thoughts and memories in mind. Even the opening 'motive' was inspired by Gustav Holst's 'Jupiter' from his symphonic suite 'The Planets.' But because this piece is human and written for another human, it has human elements as well. The 'Turkish' melodies that appear and vanish and come in and out of and from space were written for Yasmin (for she is Turkish) ... some of them are hers', and some my own. It was illogically conceived and breathed on its own. It developed from dreams and nights of staring up into the homeland. As Sun Ra would say, "Space is the Place." The music is a story, a pulse, a memory, a dream, and a vision of Outer Space...that is where it comes from. And I was born on Jupiter.http://www.jjksound.com/about/
Moya, Stellab. 1952ArgentinaAnother landscape7’2000Violin and tapeThis piece is in two sections; both are based on the same musical idea, each with different timbres and instrumentation. The tape portion was written in C language, using computer programs applying probabilities and fractals. The violin line was thoroughly composed a posteriori.
Moya, Stellab. 1952ArgentinaAnother landscape7’2000Violin and tapeIt is best to set the score on six or seven stands, arranged in semi-circle or in straight line across the stage. The violinist walks from left to right as he/she reads the piece, producing a surprising audio-visual effect, unexpected but enjoyed by the audience.
Nordin, Jesperb. 1971SwedenCalm like a Bomb10’2000Violin and tapeCalm Like a Bomb was composed under a commission by Svenska Rikskonserter (the Swedish Concert Institute) for Daniel Mdller and KammarensembleN. It is based on recordings by violinist Daniel Mdller, Swedish folksinger Sofia Karlsson, and guitarist/mandolist Fredrik Lindqvist. The work’s title is taken from a song by the rock group Rage Against the Machine. The only thing borrowed from that song apart from the title is the level of intensity.http://www.jespernordin.com
Klien, Volkmarb. 1971AustriaViolin and electronics24’2001Violin and electronicsViolin and electronics is organized in seven sections between one and 4.5 minutes. On one hand it concerns itself with possibilities for the creation of new musical rules and their formalization. On the other hand it investigates in its opening two sections the recipient’s temporal horizon, the composer’s influence over it and ramifications of this influence on the structural design of compositions, and above everything else, it sounds rather nice.http://www.volkmarklien.com
Klien, Volkmarb. 1971AustriaVariations in air pressure54’2007Violin and electronicshttp://www.volkmarklien.com
Felice, Franckb. 1961USABrace Yourself Like a Man12’2001Violin and stereo recorded mediumhttp://www.frank-felice.com
Long, Patrickb. 1968USAShadow Steps7’2001Violin and computer media systemShadow Steps draws it's inspiration from the player piano studies of Conlon Nancarrow, and the writings of Carl Jung.  The computer-generated (max/msp/jitter) piano/video part  fulfills a composition assignment that I often give to students-- to write a piano piece in which not a single measure could be played by a human.  The violin part tries to tame this unhinged beast, duels with it, and finally joins it for a violent romp.  Carl Jung's writings on the "shadow"— the dark and generally hidden side of the psyche— inspired the visceral and foreboding nature of the music.http://www.longsound.com/index/Music_of_Patrick_Long.html
Globokar, Vinkob. 1934FranceKartomlin Croisé10’2001Violin and live-electronicshttp://brahms.ircam.fr/vinko-globokar
Lucier, Alvinb. 1931USAViolynnN/A2001Solo violin with pure wave oscillatorshttp://alucier.web.wesleyan.edu
Leon, Taniab. 1943CubaAxon12’2002Violin and interactive computerThe title comes from the filaments in neurons that carry impulses through the nervous system...one of the most dramatic and exciting works I've ever heard for my favorite instrument. Mind you, as all of León's work, this is not music for the timid, or I should say, for those whose ears have not been stretched and tuned to the most advanced music of our era.http://www.tanialeon.com/composer.html
Köszeghy, Peterb. 1971HungaryL'Ecole du LibertinageN/A2002Violin with overdrivehttp://www.koeszeghy.net/person.html
McFerron, Mikeb. 1970USADos paisajes12’2002Amplified violin and electroacoustic tapeDos Paisajes for amplified violin and tape was written during my residency at the MacDowell Colony, and was commissioned by violinist Jesús Florido. The tape part was created by manipulating a limited number of violin samples. Dos Paisajes is delineated into two opposing musical ideas, one that is ordered by me, and one where the performer must improvise. These two "landscapes" coalesce to form the unified whole.http://www.bigcomposer.com/
Mumma, GordonB. 1935USAYawawotN/A2003Violin solo with electro-acoustical soundscapehttp://www.brainwashed.com/mumma/
Barriére, Jean-Baptisteb. 1958FranceViolance20’2003Violin, electronics and videowww.barriere.org
Barriére, Jean-Baptisteb. 1958FrancePalimpsest CapriccioN/A2016Violin and electronicswww.barriere.org
Azguime, Miguelb. 1960PortugalSoit Seul Sûr de Son II5’2004Violin and live-electronicshttp://www.azguime.net/Miguel_Azguime_eng/home.html
Bartetzk, Andreb. 1962GermanyString-Theory13’2005Violin and live-electronicThe string theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as different patterns of multi-dimensional vibrations of tiny super-symmetric strings. Our physical space is observed to have only four large dimensions, but nothing prevents one from having more than 4 dimensions, per se. In the case of string theory, consistency requires space-time to have 10, 11 or 26 dimensions. The conflict between observation and theory is resolved by making the unobserved dimensions compact dimensions. One way of dealing with higher dimensions is to not try to visualize them at all but to just think of them as extra numbers in the equations that describe the way the world works. Only a few millimeters away from our 4-dimensional world many parallel universes might exist.http://www.bartetzki.de/de/index.html
Kirchoff, KetihN/AUSAExperiments VII10’ (i-iii)2005Violin and digital audio mediaExperiments VII (2005) was the first piece I ever finished that employed electronics. I studied electronic music for several years in college, but, being horribly unhappy with the strong majority of electronic music being produced by modern composers, became highly critical of my own work and managed to never finish a single piece of electronic music over my entire degree. A few years later, I was invited by two other composers to compose a piece with electronics addressing the idea of “security.” Instead of composing a philosophical statement, I simply spoke the word “security” into a microphone, and then slowed down that single word over the span of ten minutes. When it was slowed down, it naturally seemed to divide itself into three sections, or movements. Although in three movements, the piece is played attaca.http://www.keithkirchoff.com
Lanksy, Paulb. 1944USAConcert Aria15’2005Robots and violin obligatohttp://paul.mycpanel.princeton.edu
Paranosic, Milicab. 1968SerbiaComeCryWithMe8’2005Violin and signal processinghttp://www.milicaparanosic.com
Schraeder, Barryb. 1945USAFallen Sparrow2005Violin and electronic music.Fallen Sparrow illustrates Mr. Schrader’s mastery in combining live performance with pre- recorded electroacoustic music. On a large scale, the composer’s carefully designed track arrangement creates a seamless, flowing sonic experience. Each composition fits within the disc’s time stream, progressing through a meta-world of sonic events. It’s clear that Mr. Schrader deliberately considers the many relationships that exist between acoustic instruments and electroacoustic sounds. He thoughtfully crafts sonic, rhythmic, motivic, harmonic, and formal materials, creating music that exhibits both freedom and reliance between instruments and electronics. Although temporally aligned with the electroacoustics due to the fixed nature of the sounds, the instrumentalist weaves seamlessly through the synthetic sound world, appearing free from time and technical constraints. The electroacoustic sounds envelop and enhance the acoustic instrument, sometimes providing a driving rhythmic accompaniment and at other times creating a lush textural back- ground allowing the instrumentalist to float above or virtuosically traverse through. Mr. Schrader precisely ad- dresses each compositional element to accurately balance the instrumentalist and electroacoustics, designing every moment to create a natural amalgamation between the two. This is no easy task, yet the musical result is organic and seamless.http://www.barryschrader.com
Toepp, ThorstenN/AGermanyMystify2005Violin and tapehttp://www.ensemble-megaphon.com/kuenstler/thorsten-toepp/
Levick, HughN/AUSANosotros7’2006Violin and pre-recorded electronicshttp://www.hughlevick.com
Zagaykevych, Allab. 1966UkraineTransparence...9’2006Violin, tape and live-electronichttp://www.zagaykevych.org
Manoury, Philippeb. 1952FrancePartita I45’2006Alto (o violin) et dispositif électronique en temps réelI started the composition Partita in July 2006. This is a project that goes back several years on the research on the potential of gesture analysis methods to intensify relations between acoustic instruments and electronic instruments. This method consists of a lightweight hardware, fixed to the soloist’s finger, to analyze real-time acceleration and pressure of the bow on the strings. Thanks to this tool, a new step seems to have been taken in the direction of an "intimate" relationship between minute variations of the instrumental game modes and control of sound synthesis. During the fall of 2006, I also decided to use the Eric Lindemann research on instrumental synthesis by integrating its Synful program to my technological environment. Most string sounds you hear in Partita I are not the actual recordings but the synthesis of previously recorded instrumental phrases. This is what gives them that "Naturalness" that is so often lacking in the instrumental sound synthesis. All electronic music elements are organized according to the principle of "tracking sheet" that allows precise and flexible synchronization between the soloist’s playing and what comes out of the speakers.www.philippemanoury.com/?p=211
Hajdu, Georgb. 1960GermanyIvresse ’847’2007Violin and laptop quartet Typically, for me a composition is a result of intersecting lines—biographically, aesthetically, technically, historically etc. The creation of Ivresse ’84, which was commissioned by violinist János Négyesy was fueled by my continuous interest in (and sometimes bewilderment by) 20th Century modernism and the notion of Western avant-garde which, despite its claims, has become a historical practice just as any other music practice. I am interested in the moment when modernism and its iconoclastic attitude had lost its impact—a moment representing a paradigmatic change in history and society. I suspect that this could be pinned to John Cage, probably the most influential icon of the 20th Century avant-garde. Fortunately, János had worked very closely with Cage, premiering his four books of the impossibly difficult Freeman etudes and, hence, provided some insights into that very moment in an hour-long interview I conducted with him at his and his wife Päivikki Nykter’s place in Lappeenranta, Finland in April 2007. In this interview, he describes a scandal (the provoked result of iconoclasm and expected byproduct of avant-garde art works) during the premiere of the first two books of the Freeman etudes in 1984 in the Italian city of Ivrea. This was probably among the last scandals Cage’s music could elicit and marks the beginning of his last period, the Number Pieces (on which Cage was said to comment to Morton Feldman: “Morty, I’m writing beautiful music again”).www.georghaidu.de
Hajdu, Georgb. 1960GermanyExit10’2001Violin and live electronicsIn 2000, I was asked by violinist Peter Stein to write a piece for a project based on the famous “Seven Last Words of Christ” which was supposed to combine the artwork by Rolf Stein, his father, with compositions by J.S. Bach, Peter Knell and myself. Coincidentally, I had a personal experience witnessing a person’s last days on top of Mount Scopus in Jerusalem–a person that was very dear to my mother-in-law, Jean Wong. I decided to use her rendering of her very touching poem in my piece:www.georghaidu.de
Michal Ratajb. 1975Czech RepublicSILENCE Talking9’2007Violin and live-electronichttp://michalrataj.com
Rusk, AvalonN/AUSACalling LoonsN/A2007Violin and electroacousticsThis piece incorporates recordings of both electronic music and — not surprisingly — loons calling. The recording of the loons is so crystal clear that one can almost hear the mist rising off the lake. As the loons called, the violin responds; and as the violin plays, the loons call back.
Essl, Karlheinzb. 1960AustriaSequitur IIIN/A2008Violin and live-electronicswww.essl.at
Miljkovic, Katarinab. 1959SerbiaWhite city13’2008Violin, video and electronicshttp://www.katarina-miljkovic.net
Takano, Marib. 1960JAPANFull Moon12’2008Violin and electronicshttp://www.maritakano.com/index_e.html
Rosenbaum, Karenb. 1970IsraelWaltz7’2009Violin and electronicsThe works of Arie Shapira and Keren Rosenbaum prompt the violin to more kinetic vocabularies. The electronics of Rosenbaum’s piece, ironically titled “Waltz,” explodes in (violin-sampled?) percussion noises.http://www.kerenrosenbaum.com
Moore, Adrianb. 1969UKFields of Darkness and Light10’2009Violin and stereo tape
Moore, Adrianb. 1970UK3 Pieces4’2006Violin and 5.1-track tape
Moore, Adrianb. 1971UKPrelude to AutonomyN/A1991
Moore, Adrianb. 1972UKCanopiesN/A1995
Norman Mason, Charlesb. 1955USAMetaman10’2009Violin with digital sound and videoComposer Charles Norman Mason and NYC artist Sheri Wills continue their collaborative work with Metaman, created specifically for Karen Bentley Pollick. It blurs the digital with the human by turning the soloist into a visual and aural landscape: as both the source and site of the imagery and as both the source of real and imagined sound sources. The video is projected onto the soloist, who becomes the screen for the imagery – imagery that shifts as the violinist moves within the frame. The audio is a combination of live acoustic and digital audio that includes samples of recorded performances of Ms. Pollick. The title for the piece comes from Gregory Stock’s book Metaman: The Merging of Humans and Machines into a Global Superorganism. www.charlesnormanmason.com
Norman Mason, Charlesb. 1955USAMetaman10’2009Violin with digital sound and videoComposer Charles Norman Mason and NYC artist Sheri Wills continue their collaborative work with Metaman, created specifically for Karen Bentley Pollick. It blurs the digital with the human by turning the soloist into a visual and aural landscape: as both the source and site of the imagery and as both the source of real and imagined sound sources. The video is projected onto the soloist, who becomes the screen for the imagery – imagery that shifts as the violinist moves within the frame. The audio is a combination of live acoustic and digital audio that includes samples of recorded performances of Ms. Pollick. The title for the piece comes from Gregory Stock’s book Metaman: The Merging of Humans and Machines into a Global Superorganism. http://sheriwills.net
Stroppa, Marcob. 1959ItalyHist, whist18’2009Violin and chamber electronicsComposer and computer scientist, Marco Stroppa is an artist for whom musical invention is inseparable from the exploration of new scientific and technological arenas. His series of works for solo instrument and chamber electronics offers the opportunity to explore novel methods for projecting sound in the concert hall and renew the computer paradigms that regulate the relationship between the worlds of instrumental and synthesized sounds.http://www.marcostroppa.eu
Hindman, Dorothyb. 1966USAFantasia for Karen Alone11’2010Solo violin and digital mediaIs an eleven minute work for violin solo with digital accompaniment.  The piece suggests the private moment  when the musician is in her practice studio, playing for herself and the joy of it alone, inspired by the fragments of music she is working up that constantly swirl through her thoughts.  Written specifically for violinist Karen Bentley Pollick, the accompanying soundfile's source material is based on several of Karen's prior performances of the composer's works.http://dorothyhindman.org
Angell, Michaelb. 1964USACapital Spheres10’2010Violin and soundfilesCapital Spheres is the second work that Michael Angell has written for Karen Bentley Pollick. The performance forces are violin and computer generated and manipulated soundfiles. The work is an analogue concerning the nature of personal identity and place. In one’s life, one may travel and live in various different places, maintaining the distinction and sovereignty of their identity within a sphere. One may move abruptly from place to place or transition, as through a pipe. The score is organized in an unusual fashion. A board is divided into six sections, two rows of three. The performer chooses six out of eight score sections to play in the space. These eight sections consist of a sphere and pipe for each of four cities: Washington DC, Birmingham, Chicago, and San Francisco. In addition to these six sections, the performer has the option of utilizing any of three more traditional written segments for unaccompanied violin: Introduction, Detour (which may be played at any point in the middle), and Parking (at the very end). Many of the concréte sources were recorded during a sound hunting expedition in Washington, DC in June of 2008.http://www.societyofcomposers.org/members/MichaelT.Angell/
Moon, Brian C.N/AUSADuetto con Bobik6’2010Solo violin and electronicsA piece for solo violin and electronics, was written for violinist Karen Bentley Pollick in 2010. The electronics for this piece are comprised entirely of manipulated recordings of Bobik—a stray hound dog that has taken up residence at the President’s home on the campus of Birmingham-Southern College. These recordings influenced the rhythmic, textural, and melodic composition of the work, resulting in a quirky, fun, and surprisingly tonal experience. Though most of the melodic material in the tape part did not need to be auto-tuned, some material was tweaked using the “I Am T-Pain” application on an iPhone.http://www.solarbean.com
Dennehy, Donnachab. 1970IrelandOverstrung7’2010Solo violin and soundtrackWritten specifically for Monica Germino, the music is built largely on the overtone series and harmonicswww.donnachadennehy.com
Nunes, Emmanuel1941-2012PortugalEinspielung I 17’2011Violin and electronicsEinspielung I is dedicated to my daughter Martha. Einspielung, a word rarely used in German, has various meanings. The first shows "an allusion to ..." The second is more specific to music and especially electronic music Finally, in its reflexive form, the verb sich einspielen means "warm up before playing," someone who is going to play an instrument, or on a stage, must warm up first. But this warming is not a purely mechanical and free exercise separate from the intention to play: it is a preparation of that intention.
Nunes, Emmanuel1941-2012PortugalEinspielung I 17’2011Violin and electronicsThis is the first of three Einspielungen. This is also my first piece for a polyphonic instrument that is not the piano. I had previously refused to write a solo piece. I always thought, in fact, he had to get in a work for solo instrument, theming some of the material, and not limited to a simple succession of notes so sophisticated it. My idea was to present the solo many motivic recoveries for a musical consistency that exceeds the simple chronology of the course. If you compare the overall sequences of three Einspielungen shows that they are very different from each other. I had initially intended to write new Einspielungen, with three very different inner parts. The violin part is tighter, more structured part to another. His cutting is much clearer, giving it a strong melodic and formal predominance.
Castillo, Patrick N/AUSAMusic for the Third Place13’2012Violin and electronicsMusic for the Third Place is an aleatoric work for violin and electronics comprising pre-composed fragments, found sounds, field recordings, synthesizers, and live audio processing systems. The shape of the work is governed by a set of rules in the style of competitive board games and the players’ choices in accordance with those rules. Aside from the content of the violin fragments, found sounds, and field recordings, nothing is pre-determined.http://www.patrickcastillo.com
Castillo, Patrick N/AUSAMusic for the Third Place13’2012Violin and electronicsThis is a recording of the world premiere performance (first of two readings) at the Third Place Gallery in Minneapolis, for which the site-specific work was composed. In addition to the violin fragments and electronic components, a variety of bells - collected from antique shops in St. Paul, Stillwater, and elsewhere - were distributed among the audience: listeners were invited to ring bells whenever they heard something they liked or did not like, thus contributing to the overall soundscape of the performance.http://www.patrickcastillo.com
Rai, Takayukib. 1954JapanActive figuration13’2012Violin and computerwww.t-rai.net
Cantu-Ledesma, JefreN/AUSARequiem8’2013Violin and magnetic tapehttp://www.shiningskull.org
Brewaeys, Lucb. 1959BelgiumNi fleurs ni couronnes: Monument pour Jonathan Harvey13’2013Violin with 4 (or 2) channel tapehttp://www.lucbrewaeys.com
Lash, Hannahb. 1981USAMiele5’2014Hannah Lash writes: "About a month ago, I was in bad need of a new vacuum cleaner, which I could not immediately afford. So I posted on Facebook, offering to write anyone a 3-minute encore in exchange for a new vacuum cleaner. A crazy idea, I realize. But I'm a clean-freak and will go to great lengths in pursuit of a clean house. To my amazement, I got quite a few responses, but the best one was from Mari Kimura, who knew exactly the brand and model I would like. She recommended a Miele, which is a fantastic line of German- made appliances. But the best part was that Mari, this extraordinary violinist and composer, was so willing to go along with the crazy premise I'd suggested for the commission of a short piece. For me it was a perfect combination. I got to write a piece for a performer I've long admired AND the prospect of a truly clean house was mere days away. The piece I wrote for Mari reflects the exuberance of my feelings towards this project. Its form is simple, almost refrain-like, and features a folk-like melody, which alternates with arpeggiated overtone harmonies. The piece explores just a few tonal areas, with the violin's low G-string representing the main tonic. I suggested to Mari who is much more accomplished than I am with technology that she might try a kind of resonator patch to add some overtones to the low G. I envision the piece as being able to exist either as a purely acoustic work, or one with an electronic element to increase its resonance. Aptly, I titled the piece Miele feeling that it was only right. And the word reminded me of the French word for honey, which suggested the sweetness of this project.”http://hannahlash.com
Moe, Ericb. 1954USAObey your thirst10’2014Violin solo and electroacoustic soundhttp://www.ericmoe.net/compositions.html
Sudol, JacobN/AUSAThe Floating Bridge of Dreams7’2015Violin and 4-channel electronicsThe Floating Bridge of Dreams is the fourth and final piece of a cycle of works for solo string instruments for live electronics based upon chapters from the Japanese novel Tale of the Genji. The work takes its title from the last chapter of the novel and, like the last three pieces of the cycle, it is based on the unresolved relationships and cycles of desires and disappointment that form the emotional core to the later Uji chapters. Following this constantly progressing yet cyclical form, this movement contains multiple transformations of materials from the previous pieces in the cycle as well as suddenly introduces and leaves unresolved multiple new transitional materials.http://www.jacobsudol.com
Steiger, Randb. 1957USATemplate 2 12’2015Solo violin, 12 instruments and electronicsTemplate 2 is a collaborative work that relies on the violin soloist to make a significant creative contribution. The solo violin part has many opportunities for improvisation, including extended improvised pasages throughout the piece, as well as small windows for improvisation during some of the composed violin material. This piece is part of my Coalescence Cycle, and shares some material with earlier works in the cycle, particularly Coalescence, which is for the same instrumentation.www.rand.info

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